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European Respiratory Journal 12/12/2019 03:05
Background. As a vulnerable population, children and adolescents with tuberculosis (TB) are faced with many challenges, even those who live in low TB incidence countries. We aimed to evaluate factors associated with TB treatment outcomes allowing more focused interventions to support this population once diagnosed. Methods. A retrospective cohort study using a nationwide surveillance database was performed in children and adolescents (aged 0–18 years) treated for TB in the Netherlands from 1993 to 2018. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for associated factors of mortality and loss to follow-up (LTFU). Results. Among 3253 eligible patients with known outcomes, 94.4% (95.9% children and 92.8% adolescen.
European Respiratory Journal 12/04/2019 19:05
Despite all our efforts, the disease burden of tuberculosis (TB) is not falling fast enough to reach the 2030 milestone of the End TB strategy [1]. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains a public health crisis, with low treatment success rates [1]. The repurposed drug linezolid has emerged as a core drug in MDR-TB treatment regimens [2, 3], despite its toxicity, e.g. anaemia, peripheral neuropathy and gastrointestinal disorders, optic neuritis, and thrombocytopenia [4, 5]. Currently, linezolid is used off-label, as part of Group A "Medicines to be prioritised" of the World Health Organization (WHO) MDR-TB treatment guideline [2] and in several large trials [6], such as the NIX-TB and END-TB trials.
European Respiratory Journal 11/28/2019 03:05
Introduction. Evidence on conditions for implementation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening and treatment among asylum seekers is needed to inform tuberculosis (TB) control policies. We used mixed-methods to evaluate the implementation of an LTBI screening and treatment programme among asylum seekers in the Netherlands. Methods. We offered voluntary LTBI screening to asylum seekers aged ≥12 years living in asylum seeker centres from countries with a TB incidence >200 per 10 000 population. We calculated LTBI screening and treatment cascade coverage, and assessed associated factors with Poisson regression using robust variance estimators. We interviewed TB care staff (seven group interviews) and Eritrean clients (21 group and 21
European Respiratory Journal 10/17/2019 03:05
Increased tuberculosis (TB) disease risk has consistently been observed among solid organ transplant recipients [1, 2]. This may result from post-transplant immunosuppressive therapy, although underlying disease processes leading to transplant (including chronic kidney disease) are also associated with increased risk [3]. TB among transplant recipients is associated with increased risk of drug toxicity, drug–drug interactions, graft failure and mortality [4], and can lead to transmission to other vulnerable hospitalised patients. Consequently, global guidelines recommend systematic screening of patients undergoing solid organ transplant for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) [3].

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