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Fight Aging! 09/25/2020 16:20
The puzzle of Alzheimer's disease is why it only occurs in some people. Unlike other common age-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis, it isn't universal, even in groups exhibiting all of the lifestyle risk factors. Thus a strong theme in the Alzheimer's research community is the search for clear and robust differences in cellular biochemistry between people with and without the condition, in an attempt to shed more light on how and why Alzheimer's arises. In the absence of a complete understanding of how and why Alzheimer's disease begins, the strategy for developing effective therapies is haphazard. Perhaps the obvious points of intervention based on today's knowledge are good, perhaps not. The history of this research and development.
Fight Aging! 09/25/2020 06:22
Researchers here evaluate the flavonoid naringenin for its ability to dampen the inflammatory signaling of senescent neural cells, particularly levels of TNF-α, and increase neurogenesis in mice. This increased neurogenesis is likely a result of reduced inflammation in brain tissue, but possibly due to other, distinct mechanisms. Neurogenesis is the name given to the generation of new neurons in the brain, and their integration into existing neural circuits. Evidence suggests that increased neurogenesis is a good thing at any age, improving cognitive function and making the brain more resilient to injury. Now that the research community is paying attention to senescent cells and their signaling in the context of aging, we'll no doubt see a
Fight Aging! 09/25/2020 06:11
This very readable open access paper discusses some of the mechanisms involved in cardiovascular aging. As for many such publications, and to my eyes at least, it leans too much towards the details of the aged metabolism rather than towards the underlying causes that make the cells of an aged cardiovascular system behave differently. Near all medicine for age-related disease has so far focused on trying to change the way in which cells behave in response to the causes of aging, without addressing those causes, and, as a result, beneficial outcomes have been marginal at best. It is somewhere between very hard and impossible to make a damaged machine run well without actually repairing the damage. The approach we take to aging, cardiovascular.
Fight Aging! 09/24/2020 15:06
Mitochondria are effectively power plants, hundreds of these organelles per cell working to create the chemical energy store molecule adenosine triphosphate. Mitochondria are the descendants of ancient symbiotic bacteria, and retain many bacterial characteristics, including a small genome, the mitochondrial DNA, and the ability to replicate. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the paths by which cells can become senescent, entering a state of growth arrest while secreting an inflammatory set of signals, but mitochondria are in any case involved in the transition to senescence in response to other forms of damage or dysfunction. In youth, senescent cells are quickly destroyed by their own programmed cell death processes or by the immune syst.
Fight Aging! 09/24/2020 06:22
Researchers here suggest that some of the detrimental effects of prolonged space missions are mediated by an increased burden of senescent cells resulting from cosmic radiation exposure. Senescent cell accumulation is a feature of aging and cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, and contributes to the progression of age-related dysfunction and disease. Senescent cells secrete an inflammatory mix of signal molecules that disrupt nearby tissue structure, alter cell behavior, and rouse the immune system into a state of chronic inflammation. Even a small number of senescent cells can have outsized effects on tissue function due to this signaling. The increasing duration of space missions involves a progressively higher exposure of astronauts t.
Fight Aging! 09/24/2020 06:11
Microglia are innate immune cells of the brain, responsible not just for destroying pathogens and errant cells, but also for clearing debris and assisting neurons in managing the connections of neural circuits. With age, microglia become ever more inflammatory and dysfunctional. This is most likely a reaction to the accumulating damage of aging brain tissue, but in addition a significant number of microglia become senescent. Senescent cells are now well known to be harmful if not quickly destroyed by their own programmed cell death processes or by other immune cells; they secrete a potent inflammatory mix of signals that degrade tissue function when present for an extended period of time. Targeted clearance of senescent microglia has been s.
Fight Aging! 09/23/2020 15:31
There are twenty or so different proteins in the body that can become altered in ways that cause them to aggregate into solid deposits known as amyloids, spreading and encouraging other molecules of the same protein to do likewise. Amyloids are a phenomenon of old individuals and old tissues, for reasons that are much debated and no doubt quite complex. Some of these amyloids are well studied and well known to be harmful, such as the amyloid-β involved in Alzheimer's disease. Others are known but less well studied, and whether or not they are harmful is a question mark. The progression of knowledge over the past decade regarding the damage done by transthyretin amyloid, with new associations with disease states emerging every few years, sug.
Fight Aging! 09/23/2020 06:22
Chronic inflammation is a feature of aging; the immune system is persistently overactive, and this disrupts tissue function in numerous ways, contributing to the progression of age-related disease. There are still anti-inflammatory mechanisms operating in old people, but these mechanisms are washed out by excessive pro-inflammatory signaling, the response to an age-damaged environment. Scientists here identify one such anti-inflammatory mechanism, an increased presence of microRNA-192 (miR-192) in the extracellular vesicles that pass between cells. Research of this nature may offer a basis for interventions that dial back age-related inflammation with fewer side-effects, in this case via upregulation of miR-192, an important goal in the tre.
Fight Aging! 09/23/2020 06:11
With the advent of epigenetic clocks that appear able to measure biological age, researchers are interested in putting these clocks to work on the assessment of interventions that might affect the pace and state of aging. It is the case, of course, that today there are all too few interventions that can reliably affect the pace and state of aging. But, arguably, the research community shouldn't let that get in the way of generating data with the interventions that do exist, such as exercise, calorie restriction, or senolytics, even though the effects on longevity in humans are either small or unknown. The most important challenge in the use of epigenetic clocks is that it remains somewhat unclear as to what exactly it is that these […]
Fight Aging! 09/22/2020 16:04
I recently collaborated on a review paper covering the history of clinical work on upregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as an approach to therapy. This is of interest to the aging research community because NAD is important to mitochondrial function. NAD levels diminish with age, alongside a loss of mitochondrial function that is known to contribute to the onset and progression of many age-related conditions. Animal studies and a few clinical trials have indicated that increased NAD levels may improve, for example, cardiovascular function in older individuals, as a result of improved mitochondrial function in important cell populations. The most common approaches to increasing NAD levels involve compounds derived from vit.
Fight Aging! 09/22/2020 06:22
The study results here provide an interesting comparison between the strategies of lowering inflammation and lowering blood cholesterol for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the name given to the buildup of fatty lesions in blood vessel walls, a process that occurs in all of us with advancing age. These deposits narrow and weaken blood vessels, ultimately leading to a fatal rupture or blockage. This is one of the largest causes of human mortality. Unfortunately the present dominant approach of reducing blood cholesterol - via statins and similar therapies - doesn't do more than modestly slow the condition, and only slightly diminishes the size of existing lesions. While atherosclerosis appears to have a strong inflammator.
Fight Aging! 09/22/2020 06:11
The fasting mimicking diet emerged from efforts to better define the dose-response curve for beneficial effects resulting from a reduced calorie intake. Fasting is beneficial, calorie restriction is beneficial, but where are the dividing lines? How much food can one eat and still obtain near all of the benefits of fasting? As a result of this work, the fasting mimicking diet has undergone clinical testing in cancer patients. Numerous benefits have been demonstrated, and the paper here is an example of the type. In this human trial, fasting mimicking reduced the negative short term impact of chemotherapy on health, and, further, three to four times as many patients experienced a strongly beneficial response to the chemotherapeutic treatment.
Fight Aging! 09/21/2020 16:02
Today's open access paper discusses the impact of mitochondrial DNA damage on female reproductive capabilities. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell, a herd of hundreds of organelles responsible for packaging the chemical energy store molecule ATP, used to power cellular processes. They are additionally deeply integrated into many core cellular processes. Mitochondria are the evolved descendants of ancient symbiotic bacteria: they carry their own small genome, the mitochondrial DNA, and replicate like bacteria. Unfortunately this mitochondrial DNA is more vulnerable and less proficiently repaired than the nuclear DNA in the cell nucleus, and it accumulates mutational damage. Most is washed out by cell turnover in the body, but this.
Fight Aging! 09/21/2020 06:22
Hearing loss is a prevalent problem with age, the result of loss of sensory hair cells of the inner ear, or as seems more likely in recent years, damage to those parts of the peripheral nervous system connecting hair cells to the brain. Chronic inflammation is a noted aspect of aging, excessive activity of the immune system, and is very disruptive to tissue function and maintenance throughout the body. Researchers here provide evidence to suggest that this persistent inflammation in older individuals is an important factor in age-related hearing loss. Age-related hearing loss (AHL) or presbycusis is a universal sensory disorder in modern society and affects about 25-40% of people over 65 years. The underlying mechanisms of AHL include oxida.
Fight Aging! 09/21/2020 06:13
The practice of calorie restriction improves many measures of health, and extends life meaningfully in short lived species such as mice. Unfortunately, while calorie restriction improves health in much the same way in humans, the effects on longevity are much smaller in long-lived species than is the case for short-lived species. Nonetheless, given that it is an intervention that requires no great effort or cost to carry out, it is well worth it for the health benefits that it does provide, such as a reduced risk of suffering age-related conditions, and a postponement of many of the more evident declines of age. One has to be realistic about the modest effects on life span in our species, but it remains interesting to see papers such […]
Fight Aging! 09/20/2020 09:55
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out more: https://www.fightaging.org/services/ Contents Clearance of Senescent Cells Reverses the Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Chemotherapy.
Fight Aging! 09/18/2020 06:22
Sarcopenia is the name given to the characteristic loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs in later life, the result of numerous contributing processes of damage and decline. Researchers here find that long-term treatment with rapamycin, and thus likely other more targeted approaches to mTORC1 inhibition, slows the onset of sarcopenia in mice by preserving the function of neuromuscular junctions, the links between nerves and muscles. The most important contributing cause of sarcopenia is likely to be a slowdown in muscle stem cell activity. Interestingly, these stem cell populations appear to remain viable, but are increasingly quiescent in response to the damaged and inflammatory environment of aged tissues. This work suggests that da.
Fight Aging! 09/17/2020 15:38
Today's research materials are a selection of recent studies on the gut microbiome and its relationship to the aging process. The scientific community has in recent years uncovered a great deal of new information regarding the way in which the gut microbiome both influences health and exhibits detrimental changes with age. Some of the microbes of the digestive tract are responsible for the generation of beneficial metabolites such as butyrate, indoles, and propionate. Unfortunately these populations decline in number with advancing age, and this negatively impacts tissue function throughout the body. Additionally, harmful inflammatory species increase in number. This contributes to the state of chronic inflammation that characterizes old ag.
Fight Aging! 09/17/2020 06:22
Metformin produces a modest and unreliable extension of life in animal models, and human data shows a small increase in life span in diabetic patients. This is thought to work as a calorie restriction mimetic drug, triggering one slice of the beneficial response to a reduced nutrient intake. Researchers here dig further in the biochemistry of the drug, and find that it reduces liver inflammation in addition to other, known effects. This is interesting, and suggestive that any benefits it produces are going to be much smaller in healthier older adults with lower levels of chronic inflammation. It doesn't change the fact that metformin does have only a small and unreliable effect on life span per the existing data, and is thus not where we […

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