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Background:. Radiotherapy is used to treat many adolescent and young adult (AYA) and childhood cancer patients and is a risk factor for secondary breast cancer. While premenopausal breast cancer is inherently more aggressive, no studies to date have evaluated the characteristics and breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS) of premenopausal secondary breast cancer after radiotherapy in AYA and childhood cancer survivors. Methods:. Female patients ages 12 to 50 diagnosed with primary breast cancer from 1988 to 2014 ( n = 107,751) were obtained from the California Cancer Registry and compared with similar aged patients with secondary breast cancer who were treated with radiotherapy for their primary tumor ( n = 1,147) from ages 12 to 39. We examin.
Background:. African Americans have the highest incidence of pancreatic cancer of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. There is evidence that consumption of red or processed meat and foods containing saturated fats may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer, but there is limited evidence in African Americans. Methods:. Utilizing the Black Women's Health Study (1995–2018), we prospectively investigated the associations of red and processed meat and saturated fats with incidence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma ( n = 168). A food frequency questionnaire was completed by 52,706 participants in 1995 and 2001. Multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. We observed int.
Background:. The etiology of breast cancer is a complex system of interacting factors from multiple domains. New knowledge about breast cancer etiology continues to be produced by the research community, and the communication of this knowledge to other researchers, practitioners, decision makers, and the public is a challenge. Methods:. We updated the previously published Paradigm model (PMID: 25017248) to create a framework that describes breast cancer etiology in four overlapping domains of biologic, behavioral, environmental, and social determinants. This new Paradigm II conceptual model was part of a larger modeling effort that included input from multiple experts in fields from genetics to sociology, taking a team and transdisciplinary a.
Background:. A safe and effective colorectal cancer chemoprevention agent remains to be discovered. There is little evidence regarding the protective effect of chondroitin sulphate and glucosamine on colorectal cancer. We aimed to assess the association between colorectal cancer risk and the use of chondroitin sulphate and glucosamine using a large cohort with dispensed data. Methods:. We performed a population-based case–control study in Catalonia using primary care reimbursed medication records (SIDIAP database). The study included 25,811 cases with an incident diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 129,117 matched controls between 2010 and 2015. Results:. The prevalence of ever use was 9.0% ( n = 13,878) for chondroitin sulphate, 7.3% ( n = 11,
Background:. This study quantifies the number of potentially "avoided"cancer deaths due to differences in 10-year relative survival between three time periods, reflecting temporal improvements in cancer diagnostic and/or treatment practices in Australia. Methods:. National population-based cohort of 2,307,565 Australians ages 15 to 89 years, diagnosed with a primary invasive cancer from 1985 to 2014 with mortality follow-up to December 31, 2015.
Background:. We aimed to characterize body composition, metabolic impairments, and physical performance among survivors of pediatric abdominal and pelvic solid tumors. Methods:. Participants included 431 survivors of abdominal or pelvic tumors [median attained age = 29.9 (range: 18.7–55.1) years].
Background:. The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for a systems thinking approach to health systems strengthening to increase adoption of evidence-based interventions (EBI). The Integrative Systems Praxis for Implementation Research (INSPIRE) methodology operationalizes the WHO systems thinking framework to meet cervical cancer elimination–early detection and treatment (CC-EDT) goals. Methods:. Using a systems thinking approach and grounded in the consolidated framework for implementation research, INSPIRE integrates multiple research methodologies and evaluation frameworks into a multilevel implementation strategy. Results:. In phase I (creating a shared understanding), soft systems methodology and pathway analysis are used to creat.
Background:. There is some evidence to suggest that endogenous levels of sex hormones might influence the etiology of cancers of the pancreas, kidney, and brain, but epidemiologic data are lacking. Methods:. We evaluated the association of circulating levels of total and free testosterone, and of sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG), with the risk of cancers of the pancreas, kidney, and brain, and of total and free estradiol with the risk of kidney cancer, in the UK Biobank cohort study ( n = 425,793; 225 pancreatic cancers, 749 kidney cancers, 467 brain cancers).
Background:. Telomeres play an important role in colorectal cancer prognosis. Variation in telomere maintenance genes may be associated with survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis, but evidence is limited. In addition, possible interactions between telomere maintenance genes and prognostic factors, such as smoking and sex, also remain to be investigated. Methods:. We conducted gene-wide analyses of colorectal cancer prognosis in 4,896 invasive colorectal cancer cases from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO); 1,871 common variants within 13 telomere maintenance genes were included. Cox models were fit to estimate associations of these variants individually with overall and colorectal cancer–specific surviv.
Background:. Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide interaction analysis on single variants (G x E) has identified several SNPs that may interact with NSAIDs to confer colorectal cancer risk, but variations in gene expression levels may also modify the effect of NSAID use. Therefore, we tested interactions between NSAID use and predicted gene expression levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk. Methods:. Genetically predicted gene expressions were tested for interaction with NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk among 19,258 colorectal cancer cases and 18,597 controls from 21 observational studies. A Mixed Score Test for Interactions (MiSTi) approach was us.
Background:. Twenty to 30% of patients with breast cancer have cognitive impairment after surgery and before adjuvant treatment, but very few studies have focused on cognition before any treatment. This study used a subgroup of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from the French cancer and toxicities (CANTO) cohort to describe cognition before any treatment in comparison with a group of healthy controls (HC). Methods:. Cognitive assessment was performed before any breast cancer treatment (surgery or neoadjuvant treatment) on women with newly diagnosed invasive stage I–III breast cancer and HCs. Objective cognitive performance, cognitive complaints, anxiety, depression, and fatigue were assessed. Objective cognitive impairment was defined.
Background:. While the primary role of central cancer registries in the United States is to provide vital information needed for cancer surveillance and control, these registries can also be leveraged for population-based epidemiologic studies of cancer survivors.
Background:. A polygenic hazard score (PHS), the weighted sum of 54 SNP genotypes, was previously validated for association with clinically significant prostate cancer and for improved prostate cancer screening accuracy. Here, we assess the potential impact of PHS-informed screening. Methods:. United Kingdom population incidence data (Cancer Research United Kingdom) and data from the Cluster Randomized Trial of PSA Testing for Prostate Cancer were combined to estimate age-specific clinically significant prostate cancer incidence (Gleason score ≥7, stage T3–T4, PSA ≥10, or nodal/distant metastases). Using HRs estimated from the ProtecT prostate cancer trial, age-specific incidence rates were calculated for various PHS risk percentiles. Risk-eq.
Underutilization of effective screening is one driver of disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Consideration of patient preferences could help to improve screening rates in populations facing substantial barriers to preventive care. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on cervical cancer screening preferences among medically underserved patients in the United States. We searched six electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) for articles published through February 2019 (Prospero ID: CRD42019125431). Among the 43 articles included, 23 reported screening modality preferences, 11 reported preferences related to provider demographics and attributes, six reported screening
Background:. Cotinine is the most widely used biomarker of tobacco exposure. At similar smoking levels, African Americans have higher serum cotinine than Whites. UGT2B10-catalyzed cotinine glucuronidation impacts these levels, and African Americans often have low UGT2B10 activity due to a high prevalence of a UGT2B10 splice variant (rs2942857). Methods:. Two UGT2B10 SNPs (rs6175900 and rs2942857) were genotyped in 289 African Americans and 627 White smokers. Each smoker was assigned a genetic score of 0, 1, or 2 based on the number of variant alleles. Total nicotine equivalents (TNE), the sum of nicotine and six metabolites, and serum cotinine and 3'-hydroxycotinine were quantified. The contribution of UGT2B10 genetic score to cotinine concen.
Background:. Hyperinsulinemia is considered to be important in the development of colon cancer, but few studies have investigated the associations of hyperinsulinemia with colon cancer survival via dietary scores. Methods:. Empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) was derived to assess the insulinemic potential of daily diets reflecting the long-term insulin exposure, with higher (more positive) scores indicating higher insulinemic diets.
Background:. Experimental evidence suggests that dietary intakes of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids have divergent effects on melanoma growth, but epidemiologic evidence on their combined effect is lacking. Methods:. In 634 Australian patients with primary melanoma, we assessed prediagnosis consumption of 39 food groups by food frequency questionnaires completed within 2 months of diagnosis.
The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in cancer research has accelerated the discovery of somatic mutations; however, progress in the identification of germline variation associated with cancer risk is less clear. We conducted a systematic literature review of cancer genetic susceptibility studies that used NGS technologies at an exome/genome-wide scale to obtain a fuller understanding of the research landscape to date and to inform future studies. The variability across studies on methodologies and reporting was considerable. Most studies sequenced few high-risk (mainly European) families, used a candidate analysis approach, and identified potential cancer-related germline variants or genes in a small fraction of.

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