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Background: Essential workers have been shown to present a higher prevalence of positive screenings for anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Individuals from countries with socioeconomic inequalities may be at increased risk for mental health disorders. Objective: We aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety, and their comorbidity among essential workers in Brazil and Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A web survey was conducted between April and May 2020 in both countries. The main outcome was a positive screening for depression only, anxiety only, or both. Lifestyle was measured using a lifestyle multidimensional scale adapted for the COVID-19 pandemic (Short Multidimensional Inventory
Background: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for the identification of viral nucleic acid is the current standard for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but technical issues limit its utilization for large-scale screening. Serological immunoglobulin M (IgM)/IgG testing has been proposed as a useful tool for detecting SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Objective: The objective of our study was to compare the results of the rapid serological VivaDiag test for SARS-CoV-2–related IgM/IgG detection with those of the standard RT-PCR laboratory test for identifying SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. Methods: We simultaneously performed both serological and molecular tests with a consecutive series of 191 symptomatic patients. The results provided
Background: The COVID-19 outbreak was designated a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. The relationship between vaping and contracting COVID-19 is unclear, and information on the internet is conflicting. There is some scientific evidence that vaping cannabidiol (CBD), an active ingredient in cannabis that is obtained from the hemp plant, or other substances is associated with more severe manifestations of COVID-19. However, there is also inaccurate information that vaping can aid COVID-19 treatment, as well as expert opinion that CBD, possibly administered through vaping, can mitigate COVID-19 symptoms. Thus, it is necessary to study the spread of inaccurate information to better understand how to promote scientific knowledge and curb inaccu.
Background: Herd immunity or community immunity refers to the reduced risk of infection among susceptible individuals in a population through the presence and proximity of immune individuals. Recent studies suggest that improving the understanding of community immunity may increase intentions to get vaccinated. Objective: This study aims to design a web application about community immunity and optimize it based on users’ cognitive and emotional responses. Methods: Our multidisciplinary team developed a web application about community immunity to communicate epidemiological evidence in a personalized way. In our application, people build their own community by creating an avatar representing themselves and 8 other avatars representing people.
Background: A “concerning post” is a display of a user’s emotional crisis on a social media platform. A better understanding of concerning posts is relevant to suicide prevention, but little is known about social media users’ attitudes and responses to concerning posts. Military veterans in the United States are disproportionately affected by suicide, often use social media, and may have exposure to individuals with elevated suicide risk via concerning posts. Objective: The objective of the study was (1) to obtain insight into whether and how US military veterans respond to members of their social network on social media (ie, “friends”) who are experiencing substantial emotional distress, and (2) to identify potential interventions that cou.
Background: Online dating apps are popular platforms for seeking romance and sexual relationships among young adults. As mobile apps can easily gain access to a pool of strangers (“new friends”) at any time and place, it leads to heightened sexual health risks and privacy concerns. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-led web-based intervention for online dating apps to prepare Chinese college students so that they have better self-efficacy when using dating apps. Methods: An open clustered randomized controlled trial was conducted among students from three colleges (The University of Hong Kong, Hang Seng University of Hong Kong, and Yijin Programme of Vocational Training College) in Hong Kong. Students aged 1.
Background: Mental health disorders are the most prevalent health issues among postsecondary students, yet few solutions to this emerging crisis exist. While mobile health technologies are touted as promising solutions for the unmet mental health needs of these students, the efficacy of these tools remains unclear. In response to these gaps, this study evaluates Thought Spot, a mobile and web app created through participatory design research. Objective: The goal of the research is to examine the impact of Thought Spot on mental health and wellness help-seeking intentions, behaviors, attitudes, self-stigma, and self-efficacy among postsecondary students in Canada. Methods: A 2-armed randomized controlled trial involving students from three p.
Background: Internet hospitals show great potential for adequately fulfilling people’s demands for high-quality outpatient services, and with the normalization of the epidemic prevention and control of COVID-19, internet hospitals play an increasingly important role in delivering health services to the public.
Background: Digital technology is an opportunity for public health interventions to reach a large part of the population. Objective: This systematic literature review aimed to assess the effectiveness of mobile health–based interventions in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: We conducted the systematic search in 7 electronic databases using a predefined search strategy. We included articles published between inception of the databases and March 2019 if they reported on the effectiveness of an intervention for prevention of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes via mobile technology. One researcher performed the search, study selection, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment.
Background: Screening for influenza in primary care is challenging due to the low sensitivity of rapid antigen tests and the lack of proper screening tests. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a machine learning–based screening tool using patient-generated health data (PGHD) obtained from a mobile health (mHealth) app. Methods: We trained a deep learning model based on a gated recurrent unit to screen influenza using PGHD, including each patient’s fever pattern and drug administration records. We used meteorological data and app-based surveillance of the weekly number of patients with influenza. We defined a single episode as the set of consecutive days, including the day the user was diagnosed with influenza or another disease.
Patient-reported assessments are transforming many facets of health care, but there is scope to modernize their delivery. Contemporary assessment techniques like computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and machine learning can be applied to patient-reported assessments to reduce burden on both patients and health care professionals; improve test accuracy; and provide individualized, actionable feedback. The Concerto platform is a highly adaptable, secure, and easy-to-use console that can harness the power of CAT and machine learning for developing and administering advanced patient-reported assessments. This paper introduces readers to contemporary assessment techniques and the Concerto platform. It reviews advances in the field of patient-repo.
Background: Information has been identified as a commonly unmet supportive care need for those living with cancer (ie, patients and their friends and family). The information needed to help individuals plan their lives around the consequences of cancer, such as the receipt of health care, is an example of an important informational need. A suitable theory to guide the development of interventions designed to meet this informational need has not been identified by the authors. Objective: The aim of this study is to generate a grounded theory capable of guiding the development of interventions designed to assist those living with cancer in meeting their informational needs. Methods: Classic grounded theory was used to analyze data collected t.
Although many people access publicly available digital behavioral and mental health interventions, most do not invest as much effort in these interventions as hoped or intended by intervention developers, and ongoing engagement is often low. Thus, the impact of such interventions is minimized by a misalignment between intervention design and user behavior. Digital micro interventions are highly focused interventions delivered in the context of a person’s daily life with little burden on the individual. We propose that these interventions have the potential to disruptively expand the reach of beneficial therapeutics by lowering the bar for entry to an intervention and the effort needed for purposeful engagement. This paper provides a concept.
Background: Despite the acceptability and efficacy of e–patient-reported outcome (ePRO) systems, implementation in routine clinical care remains challenging. Objective: This pragmatic trial implemented the PROMPT-Care (Patient Reported Outcome Measures for Personalized Treatment and Care) web-based system into existing clinical workflows and evaluated its effectiveness among a diverse population of patients with cancer. Methods: Adult patients with solid tumors receiving active treatment or follow-up care in four cancer centers were enrolled. The PROMPT-Care intervention supported patient management through (1) monthly off-site electronic PRO physical symptom and psychosocial well-being assessments, (2) automated electronic clinical alerts
Background: Clinical decision support (CDS) design best practices are intended to provide a narrative representation of factors that influence the success of CDS tools. However, they provide incomplete direction on evidence-based implementation principles. Objective: This study aims to describe an integrated approach toward applying an existing implementation science (IS) framework with CDS design best practices to improve the effectiveness, sustainability, and reproducibility of CDS implementations. Methods: We selected the Practical Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model (PRISM) IS framework. We identified areas where PRISM and CDS design best practices complemented each other and defined methods to address each. Lessons learned f.
Background: The number of electronic messages securely exchanged between clinic staff and patients has risen dramatically over the last decade. A variety of studies explored whether the volume of messages sent by patients was associated with outcomes. None of these studies, however, examined whether message content itself was associated with outcomes. Because secure messaging is a significant form of communication between patients and clinic staff, it is critical to evaluate the context of the communication to best understand its impact on patient health outcomes. Objective: To examine associations between patients’ and clinicians’ message content and changes in patients’ health outcomes. Methods: We applied a taxonomy developed specificall.
Background: Although both disaster management and disaster medicine have been used for decades, their efficiency and effectiveness have been far from perfect. One reason could be the lack of systematic utilization of modern technologies, such as eHealth, in their operations. To address this issue, researchers’ efforts have led to the emergence of the disaster eHealth (DEH) field. DEH’s main objective is to systematically integrate eHealth technologies for health care purposes within the disaster management cycle (DMC). Objective: This study aims to identify, map, and define the scope of DEH as a new area of research at the intersection of disaster management, emergency medicine, and eHealth. Methods: An extensive scoping review using publis.


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