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Web applications that employ natural language processing technologies such as text mining and text classification to support systematic reviewers during abstract screening have become more user friendly and more common. Such semi-automated screening tools can increase efficiency by reducing the number of abstracts needed to screen or by replacing one screener after adequately training the algorithm of the machine. Savings in workload between 30 percent and 70 percent might be possible with the use of such tools. The goal of our project was to conduct a case study to explore a screening approach that temporarily replaces a human screener with a semi-automated screening tool.
Translating evidence into tools that improve clinical decision making remains an ongoing challenge. In 2018, the ECRI Institute - Penn Medicine Evidence Based Practice Center (EPC) utilized the 2016 AHRQ EPC report update on the Early Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of Clostridium difficile* to develop a clinical pathway for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the acute care setting. In this AHRQ EPC methods project, we sought to develop a rigorous process to further translate the previously created CDI treatment clinical pathway into clinical decision support tools prototyped for integration into the Penn Medicine electronic health record (EHR). (*Note that the bacterium Clostridium difficile was renamed Clostrid.
Axicabtagene ciloleucel (marketed as Yescarta by Gilead Sciences) is the second chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy to be approved in Canada. Following a priority review, Health Canada approved axicabtagene ciloleucel on February 13, 2019, for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory (r/r) large B-cell lymphoma after two or more lines of systemic therapy, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) not otherwise specified, primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, high-grade B-cell lymphoma, and DLBCL arising from follicular lymphoma.
Intercultural mediators are employed to resolve linguistic and cultural barriers in a variety of health-care contexts. This report examines the main roles performed by intercultural mediators in health care across the WHO European Region and analyses evidence on their effectiveness in improving accessibility and quality of care for refugees and migrants, and the factors that enable them to have a positive impact. The beneficial impact of intercultural mediators is hindered by a lack of professionalization, insufficient training and the non-systematic and inconsistent implementation of intercultural mediation programmes. Developing training programmes and accreditation systems, further research into the effectiveness of intercultural mediato.
Machine learning tools can expedite systematic review (SR) completion by reducing manual screening workloads, yet their adoption has been slow. Evidence of their reliability and usability may improve their acceptance within the SR community. We explored the performance of three tools when used to: (a) eliminate irrelevant records (Automated Simulation) and (b) complement the work of a single reviewer (Semi-automated Simulation). We evaluated the usability of each tool.
Cancer screening is a prominent strategy in cancer control in the United States, yet the ability to correctly interpret cancer screening data seems to elude many researchers, clinicians, and policy makers. Assessment of Cancer Screening: A Primer aims to rectify that situation by teaching readers, in simple language and with straightforward examples, why and how the population-level cancer burden changes when screening is implemented, and how we assess whether that change is of benefit. The book provides an in-depth look at the many aspects of cancer screening and its assessment, including screening phenomena, performance measures, population-level outcomes, research designs, and other important and timely topics. Assessment of Cancer Scree.
Graduate education in microbiology and other biological sciences has produced the scientific cadres that ushered in a revolution in medicine, agriculture, and industrial biotechnology, which has already brought great benefit to humanity. However, the graduate education enterprise is under pressure and criticism for overcapacity, for producing scientists who are too specialized, and for not being conducive to the training of versatile scientists capable of operating successfully in many parts of society, where scientific know how is desirable and needed. These challenges provide opportunities for reforming the graduate education enterprise to better align it with the needs of society and science in the 21st century.
With human activity, modern medicine, and climate change all intensifying the impact of fungi on global health, agriculture, and biodiversity, it is more crucial than ever to advance our understanding of the fascinating biology of fungi in order to harness their extraordinary potential and evade the devastation they can impose.
This volume presents an evaluation of the carcinogenicity of benzene, updating with new data the most recent evaluation provided in Volume 100F of the IARC Monographs. Benzene, a simple aromatic hydrocarbon, occurs naturally and as a result of human activity, notably as a result of combustion, and it is a high-volume chemical now used mostly as a chemical intermediate. Human exposure to benzene is widespread through the air, in consumer products, and in industry.

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