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Purpose:. The primary objective was to evaluate intracranial objective response rate (iORR) in patients receiving abemaciclib with brain or leptomeningeal metastases (LM) secondary to hormone receptor–positive (HR + ) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Secondary objectives evaluated extracranial response, abemaciclib pharmacokinetics, brain metastases tissue exposure, and safety. Patients and Methods:. This nonrandomized, phase II study (NCT02308020) enrolled patients in tumor subtype–specific cohorts A–D: A (HR + , HER2 – MBC), B (HR + , HER2 + MBC), C (HR + MBC LM), and D (brain metastases surgical resection). Abemaciclib 200 mg was administered twice daily as monotherapy or with endocrine therapy, or 150 mg twice daily with trastuzumab. Cohor.
Purpose:. Gene expression–based molecular subtypes of high-grade serous tubo-ovarian cancer (HGSOC), demonstrated across multiple studies, may provide improved stratification for molecularly targeted trials. However, evaluation of clinical utility has been hindered by nonstandardized methods, which are not applicable in a clinical setting. We sought to generate a clinical grade minimal gene set assay for classification of individual tumor specimens into HGSOC subtypes and confirm previously reported subtype-associated features. Experimental Design:. Adopting two independent approaches, we derived and internally validated algorithms for subtype prediction using published gene expression data from 1,650 tumors. We applied resulting models to Na.
Glioblastoma (WHO grade IV glioma) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Survival has remained largely static for decades, despite significant efforts to develop new effective therapies. Immunotherapy and especially immune checkpoint inhibitors and programmed cell death (PD)-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have transformed the landscape of cancer treatment and improved patient survival in a number of different cancer types. With the exception of few select cases (e.g., patients with Lynch syndrome) the neuro-oncology community is still awaiting evidence that PD-1 blockade can lead to meaningful clinical benefit in glioblastoma. This lack of progress in the field is likely to be due to multiple reasons, including inherent challenges.
Purpose:. To determine if a targeted exome panel utilizing matched normal DNA can accurately detect germline and somatic HLA genes in patients with synovial sarcoma (SS) and whether select HLA-A*02 genotypes are prognostic or predictive of outcome in metastatic SS. Experimental Design:. Patients with metastatic SS consented to HLA typing by a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified test to determine eligibility for a clinical trial of NY-ESO-1–specific engineered T cells restricted to carriers of HLA-A*02:01, -A*02:05, or -A*02:06 (HLA-A*02 eligible).
Purpose:. Non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a fatal disease with poor prognosis. A membrane-bound form of Hsp70 (mHsp70) which is selectively expressed on high-risk tumors serves as a target for mHsp70-targeting natural killer (NK) cells. Patients with advanced mHsp70-positive NSCLC may therefore benefit from a therapeutic intervention involving mHsp70-targeting NK cells. The randomized phase II clinical trial (EudraCT2008-002130-30) explores tolerability and efficacy of ex vivo –activated NK cells in patients with NSCLC after radiochemotherapy (RCT). Patients and Methods:. Patients with unresectable, mHsp70-positive NSCLC (stage IIIa/b) received 4 cycles of autologous NK cells activated ex vivo with TKD/IL2 [interventional arm (INT)] aft.
Purpose:. Immune checkpoint blockade has demonstrated clinical benefits across multiple solid tumor types; however, resistance and relapse often occur. New immunomodulatory targets, which are highly expressed in activated immune cells, are needed. MEDI0562, an agonistic humanized mAb, specifically binds to the costimulatory molecule OX40. This first-in-human study evaluated MEDI0562 in adults with advanced solid tumors. Patients and Methods:. In this phase I, multicenter, open-label, single-arm, dose-escalation (3+3 design) study, patients received 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, or 10 mg/kg MEDI0562 through intravenous infusion every 2 weeks, until confirmed disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary objective evaluated safety and t.
Despite standard of care for glioblastoma, including gross total resection, high-dose radiation, and dose-limited chemotherapy, this tumor remains one of the most aggressive and therapeutically challenging. The relatively small number of patients with this diagnosis compared with more common solid tumors in clinical trials commits new glioblastoma therapies to testing in small, underpowered, nonrandomized settings. Among approximately 200 registered glioblastoma trials identified between 2005 and 2015, nearly half were single-arm studies with sample sizes not exceeding 50 patients. These constraints have made demonstrating efficacy for novel therapies difficult in glioblastoma and other rare and aggressive cancers. Novel immunotherapies for.
Liver cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and incidence is on the rise. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer, with a complex etiology and limited treatment options. The standard-of-care treatment for patients with advanced HCC is sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that offers limited survival benefit. In the past years, therapeutic options for the treatment of advanced HCC have increased substantially, including additional multikinase inhibitors as well as immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab were approved in 2017 and 2018, respectively, as second-line treatment in advanced HCC. These drugs, both targeting the programmed death-1 pathway, demonstr.
Purpose:. (4S)-4-(3-[ 18 F]Fluoropropyl)- L -glutamic acid ( 18 F-FSPG) is a radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging of system x C – activity, which can be upregulated in prostate cancer. We present data on the first evaluation of patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent prostate cancer with this radiopharmaceutical. Experimental Design:. Ten patients with primary and 10 patients with recurrent prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective multicenter study. After injection of 300 MBq of 18 F-FSPG, three whole-body PET/CT scans were obtained. Visual analysis was compared with step-section histopathology when available as well as other imaging studies and clinical outcomes. Metabolic parameters were measured semiquantitatively. Expression le.
Purpose:. Bevacizumab is considered a promising therapy for brain necrosis after radiotherapy, while some patients fail to derive benefit or even worsen. Hence, we developed and validated a radiomics model for predicting the response to bevacizumab in patients with brain necrosis after radiotherapy. Experimental Design:. A total of 149 patients (with 194 brain lesions; 101, 51, and 42 in the training, internal, and external validation sets, respectively) receiving bevacizumab were enrolled. In total, 1,301 radiomic features were extracted from the pretreatment MRI images of each lesion. In the training set, a radiomics signature was constructed using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator algorithm. Multivariable logistic regress.
Purpose:. The recombinant fusion protein ipafricept blocks Wnt signaling, and in combination with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel caused tumor regression in xenografts. This phase Ib study evaluated the combination of ipafricept with nab-paclitaxel + gemcitabine in patients with untreated metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPDAC). Patients and Methods:. Dose escalation started with standard dose nab-paclitaxel + gemcitabine and ipafricept (3.5 mg/kg days 1, 15). Because of fragility fractures seen with different anti-Wnt agents, following cohorts had ≥6 patients treated with ipafricept 3 to 5 mg/kg on day 1, and included bone marker monitoring and prophylactic bisphosphonates as indicated. On the basis of preclinical data, sequential dosing.
PrOTYPE is a locked down assay validated to Institute of Medicine standards, using NanoString technology to classify high-grade serous ovarian cancer into four defined subgroups. Future directions will include prospective–retrospective analysis and prospective clinical validation to define the predictive role of this assay and its role in influencing treatment decisions. See related article by Talhouk et al., p. 5411.
Purpose:. ZEN-3694 is a bromodomain extraterminal inhibitor (BETi) with activity in androgen-signaling inhibitor (ASI)-resistant models. The safety and efficacy of ZEN-3694 plus enzalutamide was evaluated in a phase Ib/IIa study in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Patients and Methods:. Patients had progressive mCRPC with prior resistance to abiraterone and/or enzalutamide. 3+3 dose escalation was followed by dose expansion in parallel cohorts (ZEN-3694 at 48 and 96 mg orally once daily, respectively). Results:. Seventy-five patients were enrolled ( N = 26 and 14 in dose expansion at low- and high-dose ZEN-3694, respectively). Thirty (40.0%) patients were resistant to abiraterone, 34 (45.3%) to enzalutamide, and 11 (14.
IL15 and TIGIT blockade enhances the natural killer (NK) cell–mediated activity against MHC-I–deficient melanoma both in vitro and in preclinical models. IL15-induced harnessing of NK cells, associated with their unleashing by TIGIT blockade, may represent a therapeutic approach for tumors, which lack HLA-I molecules thus escaping the CD8 + T cell–mediated control. See related article by Chauvin et al., p. 5520.
Purpose:. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComa) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms. mTOR inhibitors are the most active agents in PEComa and in patients progressing to mTOR inhibitors, other available therapies have limited benefit. Preclinical evidences showed a cross-talk between the mTOR pathway and estrogen receptor signaling. This provided a rationale for adding an antiestrogen treatment in female patients becoming resistant to mTOR inhibitors. Experimental Design:. Since April 2018, female patients with advanced/metastatic PEComa progressing to mTOR inhibitors were treated with a combination of sirolimus and exemestane with or without LHRH analogue (based on menopausal status). This case series was retrospectively reviewed. Survival.
Purpose:. Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in tumor immunosurveillance. Multiple activating and inhibitory receptors (IR) regulate NK-cell–mediated tumor control. The IR T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) and its counter-receptor CD226 exert opposite effects on NK-cell–mediated tumor reactivity. Experimental Design:. We evaluated the frequency, phenotype, and functions of NK cells freshly isolated from healthy donors and patients with melanoma with multiparameter flow cytometry. We assessed TIGIT and CD226 cell surface expression and internalization upon binding to CD155. We evaluated the role of IL15 and TIGIT blockade in increasing NK-cell–mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and in two mouse models. Results:. NK cells are.
The tumor suppressor p53 exerts pivotal roles in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis. Mutations of the TP53 gene have recently been described in individuals with clonal hematopoiesis conferring substantial risk of developing blood cancers. In patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), TP53 aberrations—mutations, deletions, and a combination thereof—are encountered at a constant frequency of approximately 10%. These aberrations affect HSCs transforming them into preleukemic stem cells, pinpointing their central role in leukemogenesis. AML and MDS with TP53 aberrations are characterized by complex chromosomal aberrations. Respective patients experience a dismal long-term outcome following treatment w.
Purpose:. Small-molecule inhibitors have had a major impact on cancer care. While treatments have demonstrated clinically promising results, they suffer from dose-limiting toxicities and the emergence of refractory disease. Considerable efforts made to address these issues have more recently focused on strategies implementing particle-based probes that improve drug delivery and accumulation at target sites, while reducing off-target effects. Experimental Design:. Ultrasmall ( <8 nm) core-shell silica nanoparticles, C' dots, were molecularly engineered to function as multivalent drug delivery vehicles for significantly improving key in vivo biological and therapeutic properties of a prototype epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine ki.

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