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GMO Pundit (Australia) 09/03/2019 21:14
Open access. Abstract Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences that colonize genomes and threaten genome integrity. As a result, several mechanisms appear to have emerged during eukaryotic evolution to suppress TE activity. However, TEs are ubiquitous and account for a prominent fraction of most eukaryotic genomes. We argue that the evolutionary success of TEs cannot be explained solely by evasion from host control mechanisms. Rather, some TEs have evolved commensal and even mutualistic strategies that mitigate the cost of their propagation. These coevolutionary processes promote the emergence of complex cellular activities, which in turn pave the way for cooption of TE sequences for organismal function. Authors , and Department.
GMO Pundit (Australia) 08/30/2019 21:14
Hijacking Egg formation. Highlights •Retrotransposons rarely mobilize in germline stem cells •Rather, a group of retrotransposons hijacks oogenesis to selectively target oocytes •The vast majority of transposons do not transpose even without piRNA protection •Neither abundance nor localization of transposon RNAs faithfully reflects mobility Summary Although animals have evolved multiple mechanisms to suppress transposons, "leaky" mobilizations that cause mutations and diseases still occur.
GMO Pundit (Australia) 08/25/2019 18:03
Open Access. Rice landraces tolerant of up to 2 weeks of complete submergence were collected from farmers’ fields in the 1950s. Success in fine mapping of SUBMERGENCE 1 (SUB1), a robust quantitative trait locus from the submergence tolerant FR13A landrace, has enabled marker-assisted breeding of high-yielding rice capable of enduring transient complete submergence. At the molecular level, SUB1 is a variable polygenic locus encoding two or three ethylene responsive factor (ERF) DNA binding proteins. All Oryza sativa accessions encode SUB1B and SUB1C at this locus. An additional ERF, SUB1A, is present at SUB1 in FR13A and other tolerant accessions. The induction of SUB1A expression by ethylene during submergence disrupts the elongation escape
GMO Pundit (Australia) 08/19/2019 18:42
Teosinte ligule allele narrows plant architecture and enhances high-density maize yields. Less space but greater maize yield To meet increasing demands for food, modern agriculture works with increasingly dense plantings. Tian et al. identified a gene in teosinte, the wild ancestor of maize, and used it to alter maize such that the plant has a narrower architecture that nonetheless allows leaves access to sunlight (see the Perspective by Hake and Richardson). The yield advantage only becomes evident with the high-density plantings characteristic of modern agriculture, perhaps explaining why this gene was not brought into the fold during the previous millennia of maize domestication. Science, this issue p. ; see also p. Abstract Increased pla.
GMO Pundit (Australia) 08/15/2019 17:12
Summary Although a growing body of studies has explored the antecedents of people’s adoption of conspiracy beliefs, the behavioral consequences of conspiracy theories – particularly regarding political engagement – have been less explored. Research has looked at conspiracy beliefs, exposure to specific conspiracy theories, conspiracy thinking, and the communication of conspiracy theories as predictor variables. To date, the findings are mixed due to conceptual differences and the selection of predictors with different functions and aspects. I offer new evidence. First, I explore whether conspiracy beliefs translate into political engagement. Having analyzed the 2012 American National Election Study, I find a positive association between con.
GMO Pundit (Australia) 08/12/2019 20:46
Summary. Advancements in genotyping are rapidly decreasing marker costs and increasing genome coverage. This is facilitating the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in plant breeding. Commonly employed MAS strategies, however, are not well suited for agronomically important complex traits, requiring extra time for field-based phenotyping to identify agronomically superior lines. Genomic selection (GS) is an emerging alternative to MAS that uses all marker information to calculate genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) for complex traits. Selections are made directly on GEBV without further phenotyping. We developed an analytical framework to (i) compare gains from MAS and GS for complex traits and (ii) provide a plant breeding context
GMO Pundit (Australia) 08/10/2019 16:45
Since the introduction of chestnut blight to North America in the early 1900s, American chestnuts very rarely reach maturity, appearing more shrub-like. Photo by Rachel Collins, Roanoke College. VIRGINIA TECH 23 Jul 2019. At the turn of the 20th century, the American chestnut accounted for a quarter of the hardwood trees in some parts of Appalachia. The large tree was a crucial food source, producing nuts that were a staple in the diets of white-tailed deer, wild turkeys, and bears. In 1904, a fungal blight was first discovered on trees in New York City, accidentally introduced via imported Asian chestnut trees. The invader spread quickly: by 1906 it was estimated that 98% of American chestnuts in New York City were impacted by the blight, wh.
GMO Pundit (Australia) 08/09/2019 07:19
Plant breeding is a key mechanism for adaptation of cropping systems to climate change. Much discussion of breeding for climate change focuses on genes with large effects on heat and drought tolerance, but phenology and stress tolerance are highly polygenic. Adaptation will therefore mainly result from continually adjusting allele frequencies at many loci through rapid-cycle breeding that delivers a steady stream of incrementally improved cultivars. This will require access to elite germplasm from other regions, shortened breeding cycles, and multi-location testing systems that adequately sample the target population of environments. The objective of breeding and seed systems serving smallholder farmers should be to ensure that they use var.
GMO Pundit (Australia) 08/07/2019 19:42
The Lede from Alan Levinovitz at Huffpo no less. Fear. Suspicion of established authority. A feeling of intense disempowerment. People turn to guns for the comforts that others get from oils and energy crystals. Alan Levinovitz On Assignment For HuffPost. Gun culture and wellness culture may seem like they have as much in common as an AR-15 and essential oil. But don’t let superficial differences between Gwyneth Paltrow and Wayne LaPierre fool you. Members of their respective communities are actually seeking the same kind of existential comfort: safety and security in a fallen, dangerous world, where the only person you can really count on is yourself. Whether it’s wielding a weapon to protect your family against home invaders or taking natu.
GMO Pundit (Australia) 08/03/2019 17:10
Anti-vaccine protesters at a rally. , and , Over of measles have been confirmed in the U.S. in 2019. That is more measles cases in just seven months than any full year this decade, and, more problematically, more than all U.S. measles cases from 2010-2013 and 2015-2017 combined. Lawmakers in some states, such as and , are already stepping in to combat the outbreak by eliminating certain exemptions from vaccination. We will soon know whether these new policies produce higher vaccination rates. However, a fundamental question remains: Why are some parents – despite the scientific community’s conclusions that childhood – putting their children at risk by not vaccinating them in the first place? Public health experts and health behavior scholar.
GMO Pundit (Australia) 07/24/2019 00:24
Key finding:. In conclusion, we report that HI-Edit enables widespread application of genome-editing technologies for crop improvement. Compared with existing methods, HI-Edit is faster and more effective at delivering edits to advanced breeding materials, thereby avoiding the delay and high cost of introgression. Importantly, HI-Edit offers a path to transgene-free edited inbred lines, a major consideration for regulatory approval of genome-edited crops. We used HI-Edit to enable genome editing of monocots (maize and wheat) and dicots (Arabidopsis) by both maternal and paternal HI mechanisms. The MATL knockout system could be extended to rice and other mono-cots, and CENH3 and wide-crossing HI-Edit systems may be used in both monocots and d.
GMO Pundit (Australia) 07/20/2019 18:52
Highlights. •. Plant genomes are dynamic, and gene-size insertions are prominent source of structural variation evident even within species. •Gene insertions, tandem duplications, and gene fusions can be created by different genomic processes, including transposons, as well as recombination and DNA repair machinery. •Tandemly duplicated genes themselves can serve as template for new structural variation. •Extrachromosomal circular DNA is untapped source of gene amplification and variation that can propagate outside of main genome and have adaptive potential. Summary. Plant genomes are shaped by structural variation.
GMO Pundit (Australia) 07/15/2019 14:09
by. A new study compares the effects of expansion vs. intensification of cropland use on global agricultural markets and biodiversity, and finds that the expansion strategy poses a particularly serious threat to biodiversity in the tropics. Global agricultural production must be further increased in the coming years in order to meet rising demand and changing patterns of consumption. This will require either of cropland use or an of farmland. Researchers based at Ludwig-Maximiians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich and institutional collaborators have now evaluated the trade-offs between security and the preservation of biodiversity associated with both strategies in the context of global agricultural markets. The study appears in the journal Natu.
GMO Pundit (Australia) 07/13/2019 18:58
The message:. Nerve cell connections (synapses) change during repeated day-to-day use to allow us to carry out clever behaviour by learning from experience. This flexible nerve-cell ability uses genes that were captured in earlier eras, and which are re-purposed by natural selection to provide mechanisms for currently useful thinking skills. Documented by:. The neuronal protein Arc is a critical mediator of synaptic plasticity. Arc originated in tetrapods and flies through domestication of retrotransposon Gag genes. Recent studies have suggested that Arc mediates intercellular mRNA transfer and like Gag, can form capsid-like structures. Here we report that Drosophila proteins dArc1 and dArc2 assemble virus-like capsids. We determine the capsi.

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