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DNA replication stress (DRS) is a predominant cause of genome instability, a driver of tumorigenesis and malignant progression. Nucleoside analogue-type chemotherapeutic drugs introduce DNA damage and exacerbate DRS in tumor cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the antitumor effect of these drugs are not fully understood. Here, we show that the fluorinated thymidine analogue trifluridine (FTD), an active component of the chemotherapeutic drug trifluridine/tipiracil, delayed DNA synthesis by human replicative DNA polymerases by acting both as an inefficient deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate source (FTD triphosphate) and as an obstacle base (trifluorothymine) in the template DNA strand, which caused DRS. In cells, FTD decreased the thymid.
Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a mesenchymal neoplasm with complex copy-number alterations and characteristic loss of tumor suppressor genes without known recurrent activating mutations. Clinical management of advanced LMS relies on chemotherapy and complementary palliative approaches, and research efforts to date have had limited success identifying clinically actionable biomarkers or targeted therapeutic vulnerabilities. To explore the biological underpinning of LMS, we evaluated gene-expression patterns of this disease in comparison with diverse sarcomas, nonmesenchymal neoplasms, and normal myogenic tissues. We identified a recurrent gene-expression program in LMS, with evidence of oncogenic evolution of an underlying smooth-muscle lineage-der.
Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs play essential functions in normal morphogenesis and organogenesis, including that occurring during mammary gland development and glandular regeneration. Historically, EMT programs were believed to reflect a loss of epithelial gene expression signatures and morphologies that give way to those associated with mesenchymal cells and their enhanced migratory and invasive behaviors. However, accumulating evidence now paints EMT programs as representing a spectrum of phenotypic behaviors that also serve to enhance cell survival, immune tolerance, and perhaps even metastatic dormancy. Equally important, the activation of EMT programs in transformed mammary epithelial cells not only enhances their ac.
Recent studies have demonstrated that lysine acetylation of histones is crucial for nucleotide excision repair (NER) by relaxing the chromatin structure, which facilitates the recruitment of repair factors. However, few studies have focused on the contribution of histone deacetylases (HDAC) to NER. Here, we found that histone H3 Lys14 (H3K14) was deacetylated by HDAC3 after UV irradiation. Depletion of HDAC3 caused defects in cyclobutene pyrimidine dimer excision and sensitized cells to UV irradiation. HDAC3-depleted cells had impaired unscheduled DNA synthesis, but not recovery of RNA synthesis, which indicates that HDAC3 was required for global genome NER. Moreover, xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group C (XPC) accumulation at the
Telomere shortening has been demonstrated in benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), which is associated with prostate epithelial cell senescence. Telomere shortening is the most frequently observed genetic alteration in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and is associated with poor clinical outcomes in prostate cancer. Gene expression database analysis revealed decreased TRF2 expression during malignant progression of the prostate gland. We reasoned that reduced TRF2 expression in prostate epithelium, by activating the telomere DNA damage response, would allow us to model both benign and malignant prostate disease. Prostate glands with reduced epithelial TRF2 expression developed age- and p53-dependent hypertrophy, senescence, ductal dilatio.
Tumor endothelial cells (TEC) play multiple roles in the regional specialization of vascular structure and physiology. Because TECs in the tumor microenvironment come in contact with circulating immune cells, they might influence not only trafficking but also the antitumor cellular immune response. In a mouse tumor implantation model with B16 melanoma cells, TECs expressed MHC class II, costimulating molecules, and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), suggesting that they are antigen (Ag)-presenting cells with suppressive activity. Furthermore, TECs were able to take up and present tumor-derived ovalbumin (OVA) peptide on MHC class I molecules. In functional assays, B16-OVA tumor–derived TECs significantly suppressed the proliferation and Ag-
Patients with DNA mismatch repair–deficient (dMMR)/microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colorectal cancer represent a biomarker-defined population with distinct clinicopathologic features who are susceptible to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). However, their survival outcomes vary considerably and nearly half of them exhibit primary resistance to current ICIs, suggesting substantial molecular heterogeneity even among tumors with dMMR/MSI-H. We conducted an extensive analysis of the tumor microenvironment (TME) using multiple transcriptomic, proteomic, and IHC cohorts of colorectal cancer, comprising 222 dMMR/MSI-H and 1440 MMR-proficient/microsatellite stable tumors. We developed a TGFβ-responsive stromal gene signature and then ident.
Breast cancer metastasis is a leading cause of cancer-related death of women in the United States. A hurdle in advancing metastasis-targeted intervention is the phenotypic heterogeneity between primary and secondary lesions. To identify metastasis-specific gene expression profiles we performed RNA-sequencing of breast cancer mouse models; analyzing metastases from models of various drivers and routes. We contrasted the models and identified common, targetable signatures. Allograft models exhibited more mesenchymal-like gene expression than genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM), and primary culturing of GEMM-derived metastatic tissue induced mesenchymal-like gene expression. In addition, metastasis-specific transcriptomes differed betwe.
gBRCA1/2 mutations increase the incidence of breast cancer by interrupting the homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway. Although gBRCA1 and gBRCA2 breast cancer have similar clinical profiles, different molecular characteristics have been observed. In this study, we conducted comprehensive genomic analyses and compared gBRCA1/2 breast cancer. Sanger sequencing to identify gBRCA1/2 mutations was conducted in 2,720 patients, and gBRCA1 ( n = 128) and gBRCA2 ( n = 126) mutations were analyzed. Within this population, deep target sequencing and matched whole-transcriptome sequencing (WTS) results were available for 46 and 34 patients, respectively. An internal database of patients with breast cancer with wild-type gBRCA was used to compil.
There is accumulating evidence for a link between circadian clock disruption and cancer progression. In this study, the circadian clock was investigated in cervical and esophageal cancers, to determine whether it is disrupted in these cancer types. Oncomine datamining revealed downregulation of multiple members of the circadian clock gene family in cancer patient tissue compared with matched normal epithelium. Real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed significant downregulation of CLOCK, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, CRY2, REV-ERB α, and ROR α in esophageal tumor tissue. In cell line models, expression of several circadian clock genes was significantly decreased in transformed and cancer cells compared with noncancer controls, and protein levels were d.
Ovarian cancer is an aggressive disease that affects about 300,000 patients worldwide, with a yearly death count of about 185,000. Following surgery, treatment involves adjuvant or neoadjuvant administration of taxane with platinum compounds cisplatin or carboplatin, which alkylate DNA through the same chemical intermediates. However, although platinum-based therapy can cure patients in a number of cases, a majority of them discontinues treatment owing to side effects and to the emergence of resistance. In this study, we focused on resistance to cisplatin and investigated whether metabolic changes could be involved. As models, we used matched pairs of cisplatin-sensitive (SKOV-3 and COV-362) and cisplatin-resistant (SKOV-3-R and COV-362-R)
The majority of patients with prostate cancer treated with docetaxel develop resistance to it. To better understand the mechanism behind the acquisition of resistance, we conducted single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) of docetaxel-sensitive and -resistant variants of DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. Overall, sensitive and resistant cells clustered separately. Differential gene expression analysis between resistant and sensitive cells revealed 182 differentially expressed genes common to both prostate cancer cell lines. A subset of these genes gave a gene expression profile in the resistant transcriptome-like–sensitive cells similar to the resistant cells. Exploration for functional gene pathways identified 218 common pathways bet.
The mechanism of cancer induction involves an aberrant expression of oncogenes whose functions can be controlled by RNAi with miRNA. Even foreign bacterial RNA may interfere with the expression of oncogenes. Here we show that bacterial plasmid mucAB and its Escherichia coli genomic homolog umuDC, carrying homologies that match the mouse anti-miR-145, sequestered the miR-145 function in mouse BALB 3T3 cells in a tetracycline (Tet)-inducible manner, activated oncogene Nedd9 and its downstream Aurkb, and further enhanced microcolony formation and cellular transformation as well as the short fragments of the bacterial gene containing the anti-miR-145 sequence. Furthermore, mucAB transgenic mice showed a 1.7-fold elevated tumor incidence compare.
Lipid uptake occurs through caveolae, plasma membrane invaginations formed by caveolins (CAV) and caveolae-associated protein 1 (CAVIN1). Genetic alterations of CAV1N1 and CAV1 modify lipid metabolism and underpin lipodystrophy syndromes. Lipids contribute to tumorigenesis by providing fuel to cancer metabolism and supporting growth and signaling. Tumor stroma promotes tumor proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, but how stromal lipids influence these processes remain to be defined. Here, we show that stromal CAVIN1 regulates lipid abundance in the prostate cancer microenvironment and suppresses metastasis. We show that depletion of CAVIN1 in prostate stromal cells markedly reduces their lipid droplet accumulation and increases inflammati.
EGFR inhibitors have shown poor efficacy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with demonstrated involvement of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) in resistance to EGFR inhibition. IGF1R activates the PI3K–Akt pathway, which phosphorylates proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40) to cease mTOR inhibition resulting in increased mTOR signaling. Proliferation assays separated six HNSCC cell lines into two groups: sensitive to EGFR inhibition or resistant; all sensitive cell lines demonstrated reduced sensitivity to EGFR inhibition upon IGF1R activation. Reverse phase protein microarray analysis and immunoblot identified a correlation between increased PRAS40 phosphorylation and IGFR-mediated resistance to EGFR in.
The Crk adaptor protein, a critical modifier of multiple signaling pathways, is overexpressed in many cancers where it contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. Recently, we have shown that Crk interacts with the peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, Cyclophilin A (CypA; PP1A) via a G 219 P 220 Y 221 (GPY) motif in the carboxyl-terminal linker region of Crk, thereby delaying pY221 phosphorylation and preventing downregulation of Crk signaling. Here, we investigate the physiologic significance of the CypA/Crk interaction and query whether CypA inhibition affects Crk signaling in vitro and in vivo . We show that CypA, when induced under conditions of hypoxia, regulates Crk pY221 phosphorylation and signaling in cancer cell lines. Using
Transcriptional enhanced associate domain (TEAD) proteins are the downstream effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway that regulate cell proliferation and stem cell functions. The expression of TEAD family is upregulated in many cancer types including pancreatic, colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers, which is correlated with poor survival in patients. Pharmacologic modulators of TEADs could therefore find application in cancer treatment and regenerative medicine. In this presentation, we report our exploration of the TEAD2 Yap-binding domain conformational ensemble and its binding interaction characteristics with peptides and small molecules, using both molecular dynamics simulation and experimental binding studies with FP probes. We ca.
The NSD2 p.E1099K (EK) mutation is observed in 10% of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) samples with enrichment at relapse indicating a role in clonal evolution and drug resistance. To discover mechanisms that mediate clonal expansion, we engineered B-precursor ALL (B-ALL) cell lines (Reh, 697) to overexpress wildtype (WT) and EK NSD2, but observed no differences in proliferation, clonal growth, or chemosensitivity. To address whether NSD2 EK acts collaboratively with other pathways, we used short hairpin RNAs to knockdown expression of NSD2 in B-ALL cell lines heterozygous for NSD2 EK (RS4;11, RCH-ACV, SEM). Knockdown resulted in decreased proliferation in all lines, decreased clonal growth in RCH-ACV, and increased sensitivity to cytotox.
The Hippo pathway plays important roles in tissue homeostasis. When dysregulated in adult tissues, however, it contributes to the development of a variety of cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). YAP1 is the final regulator of the Hippo pathway and is associated with poor prognosis of HCC patients, and more recently has been suggested to be involved in tumor immune evasion. Here, we employed next-generation constrained ethyl (cEt) antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to selectively target YAP1 in the genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model of HCC ( Salvador KO mice) as well as in a spontaneous carcinogen-induced model of HCC (diethylnitrosamine, DEN-induced HCC). In YAP1-activated Salvador KO mice with established HCC tumors, syst.

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