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Object: We are committed to studying the characteristics of energy metabolism in bladder cancer patients, and to investigate the regulation of sulforaphane (SFN) on glucose metabolism in bladder cancer cells. Methods: Real-time PCR was used to detect the gene level of glycolysis key rate-limiting enzymes in bladder tumors, and para-carcinoma tissues as control. We also measured the activity of glycolysis enzymes in patient serum and bladder cancer cells by ELISA. Then we measured microRNAs level by microarray after SFN treatment. GO function and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were used to gain insights into the biological roles and the potential pathway of different expression microRNAs. Results: Gene expression results showed that the le.
Inhibition of members of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of proteins has proven a valid strategy for cancer chemotherapy. All BET identified to date contain two bromodomains (BD; BD1 and BD2) that are necessary for recognition of acetylated lysine residues in the N-terminal regions of histones. Chemical matter that targets BET (BETi) also interact via these domains. Molecular and cellular data indicate that BD1 and BD2 have different biological roles depending upon their cellular context, with BD2 particularly associated with cancer. We have therefore pursued the development of BD2-selective molecules both as chemical probes and as potential leads for drug development. Here we report the structure-based generation of a novel
Cellular senescence entails an irreversible growth arrest that evolved in part to prevent cancer. Paradoxically, senescent cells secrete proinflammatory and growth-stimulatory molecules, termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which is correlated with cancer cell proliferation in culture and xenograft models. However, at what tumor stage and how senescence and the SASP act on endogenous tumor growth in vivo is unknown. To understand the role of senescence in cancer etiology, we subjected p16-3MR transgenic mice, which permit the identification and selective elimination of senescent cells in vivo, to the well-established two-step protocol of squamous cell skin carcinoma, in which tumorigenesis is initiated by a carcinoge.
Colorectal cancer exhibits aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Many inhibitors of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway have been tested for Wnt-dependent cancers including colorectal cancer, but are unsuccessful due to severe adverse reactions. FL3 is a synthetic derivative of natural products called flavaglines, which exhibit anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties in intestinal epithelial cells, but has not been previously tested in cell or preclinical models of intestinal tumorigenesis. In vitro studies suggest that flavaglines target prohibitin 1 (PHB1) as a ligand, but this has not been established in the intestine. PHB1 is a highly conserved protein with diverse functions that depend on its posttranslational modifications and.
Germline mutations in TP53 cause a rare high penetrance cancer syndrome, Li–Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Here, we identified a rare TP53 tetramerization domain missense mutation, c.1000G>C;p.G334R, in a family with multiple late-onset LFS-spectrum cancers. Twenty additional c.1000G>C probands and one c.1000G>A proband were identified, and available tumors showed biallelic somatic inactivation of TP53. The majority of families were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, and the TP53 c.1000G>C allele was found on a commonly inherited chromosome 17p13.1 haplotype. Transient transfection of the p.G334R allele conferred a mild defect in colony suppression assays. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from the index family in comparison with TP53 normal lines showed that
BRCA2 is a clinically actionable gene implicated in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition that has become a high priority target for improving the classification of variants of unknown significance (VUS). Among all BRCA2 VUS, those causing partial/leaky splicing defects are the most challenging to classify because the minimal level of full-length (FL) transcripts required for normal function remains to be established. Here, we explored BRCA2 exon 3 (BRCA2e3) as a model for calibrating variant-induced spliceogenicity and estimating thresholds for BRCA2 haploinsufficiency. In silico predictions, minigene splicing assays, patients' RNA analyses, a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) complementation assay and retrieval of patient-related inform.
Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) is an emerging noninvasive imaging modality that can detect real-time dynamic information about the tumor microenvironment in humans and animals. Oxygen enhanced (OE)-MSOT can monitor tumor vasculature and oxygenation during disease development or therapy. Here, we used MSOT and OE-MSOT to examine in mice the response of human non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenografts to a new class of antitumor drugs, heme-targeting agents heme-sequestering peptide 2 (HSP2) and cyclopamine tartrate (CycT). HSP2 inhibits heme uptake, while CycT inhibits heme synthesis in NSCLC cells, where heme is essential for ATP generation via oxidative phosphorylation. HSP2 and CycT can inhibit ATP generation and thereby
Under conditions of inherent or induced mitochondrial dysfunction, cancer cells manifest overlapping metabolic phenotypes, suggesting that they may be targeted via a common approach. Here, we use multiple oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)–competent and incompetent cancer cell pairs to demonstrate that treatment with α-ketoglutarate (aKG) esters elicits rapid death of OXPHOS-deficient cancer cells by elevating intracellular aKG concentrations, thereby sequestering nitrogen from aspartate through glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1 (GOT1). Exhaustion of aspartate in these cells resulted in immediate depletion of adenylates, which plays a central role in mediating mTOR inactivation and inhibition of glycolysis. aKG esters also conferred cytot.
Exposure to high doses of alkylating agents is associated with increased risk of impaired spermatogenesis among nonirradiated male survivors of childhood cancer, but there is substantial variation in this risk. Here we conducted a genetic study for impaired spermatogenesis utilizing whole-genome sequencing data from 167 nonirradiated male childhood cancer survivors of European ancestry from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort treated with cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED) ≥4,000 mg/m2. Sperm concentration from semen analysis was assessed as the primary outcome. Common variants (MAF > 0.05) were adjusted for age at cancer diagnosis, CED, and top principal components. Rare/low-frequency variants (MAF ≤ 0.05) were evaluated jointly by various fu.
Histopathologic analysis through biopsy has been one of the most useful methods for the assessment of malignant neoplasms. However, some aspects of the analysis such as invasiveness, evaluation range, and turnaround time from biopsy to report could be improved. Here, we report a novel method for visualizing human cervical tissue three-dimensionally, without biopsy, fixation, or staining, and with sufficient quality for histologic diagnosis. Near-infrared excitation and nonlinear optics were employed to visualize unstained human epithelial tissues of the cervix uteri by constructing images with third-harmonic generation (THG) and second-harmonic generation (SHG). THG images enabled evaluation of nuclear morphology in a quantitative manner wi.
Assembly of RAS molecules into complexes at the cell membrane is critical for RAS signaling. We previously showed that oncogenic KRAS codon 61 mutations increase its affinity for RAF, raising the possibility that KRASQ61H, the most common KRAS mutation at codon 61, upregulates RAS signaling through mechanisms at the level of RAS assemblies. We show here that KRASQ61H exhibits preferential binding to RAF relative to PI3K in cells, leading to enhanced MAPK signaling in in vitro models and human NSCLC tumors. X-ray crystallography of KRASQ61H:GTP revealed that a hyperdynamic switch 2 allows for a more stable interaction with switch 1, suggesting that enhanced RAF activity arises from a combination of absent intrinsic GTP hydrolysis activity an.
Pygopus 2 (Pygo2) is a coactivator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling that can bind bi- or trimethylated lysine 4 of histone-3 (H3K4me2/3) and participate in chromatin reading and writing. It remains unknown whether the Pygo2–H3K4me2/3 association has a functional relevance in breast cancer progression in vivo. To investigate the functional relevance of histone-binding activity of Pygo2 in malignant progression of breast cancer, we generated a knock-in mouse model where binding of Pygo2 to H3K4me2/3 was rendered ineffective. Loss of Pygo2–histone interaction resulted in smaller, differentiated, and less metastatic tumors, due, in part, to decreased canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. RNA- and ATAC-sequencing analyses of tumor-derived cell lines reve.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have the potential to induce durable therapeutic responses, yet response rates in breast cancer are modest and limited to particular subtypes. To expand the applicability of ICI, we examined the role of an essential autophagy gene, FIP200, which has been shown to be important for tumor progression in mammary tumors. Specific disruption of the autophagy function of FIP200 or complete ablation of FIP200 in genetic mouse models revealed that FIP200 autophagy function was required for progression of PyMT-driven mammary tumors. However, a noncanonical autophagy function of FIP200 was responsible for limiting T-cell recruitment and activation of the TBK1-IFN signaling axis. FIP200 also interacted with the TBK1 a.
Macrophages play important roles in both physiologic and pathologic processes and arise from successive waves of embryonic and adult hematopoiesis. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MOMF) exert distinct functions under pathologic conditions, and leukemia-associated macrophages (LAM) show considerable diversities in activation and functional phenotype. However, their origin and pathologic roles have not been well elucidated. Here we used wild-type and CCR2−/− mice to study the pathologic roles of monocyte-derived LAM in extramedullary tissues in models of Notch1-induced T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). MOMF existed in the resting liver and spleen. In the spleen, Ly6C+ monocytes gave rise to the Ly6C+ macrophage subset. Furthermore, a.
GST omega 1 (GSTO1) is an atypical GST isoform that is overexpressed in several cancers and has been implicated in drug resistance. Currently, no small-molecule drug targeting GSTO1 is under clinical development. Here we have validated GSTO1 as an impactful target in oncology. Transcriptional profiling coupled with proteomics uncovered novel pharmacodynamic markers and cellular pathways regulated by GSTO1. CRISPR/Cas9 GSTO1 knockout (KO) cell lines failed to form tumors or displayed growth delay in vivo; they also formed smaller 3D spheroids in vitro. Multiomics analysis in GSTO1 KO cells found a strong positive correlation with cell adhesion molecules and IFN response pathways and a strong negative correlation with Myc transcriptional sign.
Despite advancements in treatment options, the overall cure and survival rates for non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) remain low. While small-molecule inhibitors of epigenetic regulators have recently emerged as promising cancer therapeutics, their application in patients with NSCLC is limited. To exploit epigenetic regulators as novel therapeutic targets in NSCLC, we performed pooled epigenome-wide CRISPR knockout screens in vitro and in vivo and identified the histone chaperone nucleophosmin 1 (Npm1) as a potential therapeutic target. Genetic ablation of Npm1 significantly attenuated tumor progression in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, KRAS-mutant cancer cells were more addicted to NPM1 expression. Genetic ablation of Npm1 rewired the ba.
The somatic missense point mutation c.402C>G (p.C134W) in the FOXL2 transcription factor is pathognomonic for adult-type granulosa cell tumors (AGCT) and a diagnostic marker for this tumor type. However, the molecular consequences of this mutation and its contribution to the mechanisms of AGCT pathogenesis remain unclear. To explore these mechanisms, we engineered V5-FOXL2WT- and V5-FOXL2C134W–inducible isogenic cell lines and performed chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and transcriptome profiling. FOXL2C134W associated with the majority of the FOXL2 wild-type DNA elements as well as a large collection of unique elements genome wide. This model enabled confirmation of altered DNA-binding specificity for FOXL2C134W and identification
Understanding the effects of novel cancer drugs on the tumor microenvironment will be crucial for their successful use in patients. In this issue of Cancer Research, Ghosh and colleagues discuss the effect of two promising heme-targeting agents on the vascular network in mouse models of lung cancer, utilizing emerging optoacoustic imaging approaches. The findings demonstrating significant, dynamic modulation of tumor hypoxia with the heme-targeting drug treatments create important opportunities for image-guided combination therapy.See related article by Ghosh et al., p. 3542.
The mutant protein FOXL2C134W is expressed in at least 95% of adult-type ovarian granulosa cell tumors (AGCT) and is considered to be a driver of oncogenesis in this disease. However, the molecular mechanism by which FOXL2C134W contributes to tumorigenesis is not known. Here, we show that mutant FOXL2C134W acquires the ability to bind SMAD4, forming a FOXL2C134W/SMAD4/SMAD2/3 complex that binds a novel hybrid DNA motif AGHCAHAA, unique to the FOXL2C134W mutant. This binding induced an enhancer-like chromatin state, leading to transcription of nearby genes, many of which are characteristic of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. FOXL2C134W also bound hybrid loci in primary AGCT. Ablation of SMAD4 or SMAD2/3 resulted in strong reduction of F.

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