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Background:. Few studies have examined prostate cancer incidence and aggressiveness in urban-rural Appalachian populations. We examined these rates in urban-rural Appalachia and non-Appalachia Pennsylvania (PA), and the association between these areas and more aggressive prostate cancer at diagnosis. Methods:. Men, ages ≥ 40 years with a primary prostate cancer diagnosis, were identified from the 2004–2014 Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Age-adjusted incidence rates for prostate cancer and more aggressive prostate cancer at diagnosis were calculated by urban-rural Appalachia status. Multivariable Poisson regressions were conducted. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the association between the geographic areas and more aggressiv.
Background:. While Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is the major cause of gastric cancer, it has also been suggested to be involved in colorectal cancer development. However, prospective studies addressing H. pylori and colorectal cancer are sparse and inconclusive. We assessed the association of antibody responses to H. pylori proteins with colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Methods:. We applied H. pylori multiplex serology to measure antibody responses to 13 H. pylori proteins in prediagnostic serum samples from 485 colorectal cancer cases and 485 matched controls nested within the EPIC study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivari.
Background:. Sex plays an important role in the incidence, prognosis, and mortality of cancers, but often is not considered in disease treatment. Methods:. We quantified sex differences in cancer incidence using the United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) public use database and sex differences in cancer survival using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) public use data from 2001 to 2016.
Background:. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the risk of breast cancer, but the association may vary according to patient factors. We investigated the association between HRT and breast cancer in a nationwide cohort with risk stratification according to risk factors for breast cancer. Methods:. Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, 4,558,376 postmenopausal women who underwent breast cancer screening and regular health checkups from 2009 to 2014 were analyzed. Results:. A total of 696,084 (15.3%) women reported current or previous HRT use. Breast cancer was newly diagnosed in 26,797 (0.6%) women during a median follow-up of 5.35 years. The HR of the risk of breast cancer in HRT users was 1.25 [95% confidence i.
Patients with cancer are among the most vulnerable populations in the aftermath of a disaster. They are at higher risk of medical complications and death due to the collapse of or disruptions in the health care system, the community infrastructure, and the complexity of cancer care. The United Nations' Sendai Framework for Disaster Reduction states that people with life-threatening and chronic diseases should be considered in disaster plans to manage their risks. With extreme weather or disasters becoming more intense and frequent and with the high burden of cancer in the United States and its territories, it is important to develop region-specific plans to mitigate the impact of these events on the cancer patient population. After Hurrican.
Background:. Germany is known for its weak tobacco control. We aimed to provide projections of potentially avoidable cancer cases under different tobacco control policy intervention scenarios. Methods:. To estimate numbers and proportions of potentially avoidable cancer cases under different policy intervention scenarios (cigarette price increases, comprehensive marketing ban, and plain packaging), we calculated cancer site–specific potential impact fractions by age, sex, and year of study period (2020–2050), considering latency periods between reduction in smoking prevalence and manifestation in declining cancer excess risks. To obtain estimates of future incident case numbers, we assumed a continuation of recent smoking trends, and combined.
Background:. Vitamin D has potential immunomodulating benefits in infection. One prior population-based cross-sectional study showed a protective association between serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) detection. Additional biomarkers present at different stages along the vitamin D metabolic pathway may more completely characterize vitamin D status but have not yet been evaluated in relation to hrHPV infection. Methods:. Stored sera from women aged 30–50 years ( N = 404) enrolled in an HPV natural history study from 2011–2012 were tested for 25(OH)D and 4 novel vitamin D biomarkers: 1,25(OH) 2 D, 24,24(OH) 2 D 3 , free vitamin D, and vitamin D–binding protein. Cross-sectional associations between vitamin.
Background:. Benefits of screening should outweigh its potential harms. We compared various metrics to assess the balance of benefits and harms of cervical cancer screening. Methods:. We used a cervical cancer natural history Markov model calibrated to the Canadian context to simulate 100,000 unvaccinated women over a lifetime of screening with either cytology every 3 years or human papillomavirus (HPV) testing every 5 years. We estimated the balance of benefits and harms attributable to screening using various metrics, including colposcopies/life-year gained, and net lifetime quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained, a measure integrating women's health preferences. We present the average (minimum–maximum) model predictions. Results:. Cytolo.
Background:. Vitamin E is an essential micronutrient and critical human antioxidant previously tested for cancer preventative effects with conflicting clinical trial results that have yet to be explained biologically. Methods:. We examined baseline and on-trial serum samples for 154 men randomly assigned to receive 400 IU vitamin E (as alpha-tocopheryl acetate; ATA) or placebo daily in the Vitamin E Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (VEAPS), and for 100 men administered 50 IU ATA or placebo daily in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC).
Background:. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, with few known risk factors and biomarkers. Several blood protein biomarkers have been linked to PDAC in previous studies, but these studies have assessed only a limited number of biomarkers, usually in small samples. In this study, we evaluated associations of circulating protein levels and PDAC risk using genetic instruments. Methods:. To identify novel circulating protein biomarkers of PDAC, we studied 8,280 cases and 6,728 controls of European descent from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, using genetic instruments of protein quantitative trait loci. Results:. We observed associations between.
Background:. Data on historic trends and estimates of future cancer incidence are essential if cancer services are to be adequately resourced in future years. Methods:. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIR) for all cancers combined and 19 common cancers diagnosed during 1993–2017 were determined by sex, year of diagnosis, and age.
Background:. Inflammation has been implicated in colorectal cancer etiology, but the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) and colorectal cancer risk is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between prediagnostic plasma CRP concentrations and the risk of clinical and molecular colorectal cancer subtypes. Methods:. We used prospectively collected samples from 1,010 matched colorectal cancer case–control pairs from two population-based cohorts in Northern Sweden, including 259 with repeated samples. Conditional logistic regression and linear mixed models were used to estimate relative risks of colorectal cancer, including subtypes based on BRAF and KRAS mutations, microsatellite instability status, tumor location, stage, lag
Geospatial analyses are increasingly used in population oncology. We provide a first review of geospatial analysis in Canadian population oncology research, compare to international peers, and identify future directions. Geospatial-focused peer-reviewed publications from 1992–2020 were compiled using PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Abstracts were screened for data derived from a Canadian cancer registry and use of geographic information systems. Studies were classified by geospatial methodology, geospatial unit, location, cancer site, and study year. Common limitations were documented from article discussion sections. Our search identified 71 publications using data from all provincial and national cancer registries. Th.
Background:. The prevalence of cancer survivorship is increasing. In this study, we provide contemporary population–based estimates and projections of the overall and site-specific cancer-attributable medical care costs in the United States. Methods:. We identified survivors aged ≥65 years diagnosed with cancer between 2000 and 2012 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database and used 2007 to 2013 claims to estimate costs by cancer site, phases of care, and stage at diagnosis. Annualized average cancer-attributable costs for medical care (Medicare Parts A and B) and oral prescription drugs (Medicare Part D) were estimated by subtracting costs between patients with cancer and matched controls. Costs are report.
Background:. Intake of tomato and/or lycopene has been associated with reduced risk of several cancers, but there is no report on the association with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods:. The associations of tomato and lycopene consumption with risk of HCC were examined in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese ages 45 to 74 years at enrollment.
Background:. Cigarette smoking is causally linked to renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, associations for individual RCC histologies are not well described. Newly available data on tobacco use from population-based cancer registries allow characterization of associations with individual RCC types. Methods:. We analyzed data for 30,282 RCC cases from 8 states that collected tobacco use information for a National Program of Cancer Registry project. We compared the prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of cigarette smoking (current vs. never, former vs. never) among individuals diagnosed between 2011 and 2016 with clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, renal collecting duct/medullary carcinoma, cyst-associated RCC, and unclas.
Background:. Although there are considerable racial and ethnic disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the United States and globally, clinical trials often do not reflect disease incidence across racial and ethnic subgroups. This study aims to comprehensively review the reporting of race and ethnicity data and the representation of race and ethnicity across prostate cancer treatment-, prevention-, and screening-based clinical trials. Methods:. Seventy-two global phase III and IV prevention, screening, and treatment prostate cancer clinical trials with enrollment start dates between 1987 and 2016 were analyzed in this study, representing a total of 893,378 individual trial participants. Availability and representation of rac.
Background:. Several studies have reported differential vaccine uptake outcomes that are associated with sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as provider type. However, none has examined a trend over a multiple-year span. In this study, we utilize a longitudinal data-based approach to examine state-level human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine trends and their influences over time. Methods:. We analyzed National Immunization Survey – Teen data (2008–2016) to estimate HPV vaccine initiation rate in young female adolescent ages 13–17 years old among U.S. States. We identified growth patterns using the latent class growth method and explored state-level characteristics, including socioeconomic and sociodemographic attributes, a.
Background:. Hispanics are differentially burdened by inequities in cancer outcomes. Increasing knowledge about cancer and cancer services among Hispanics may aid in reducing inequities, but little is known about what information sources are considered most effective or most trusted by this diverse population. The goal of this study was to examine heterogeneity in trust of cancer information from various media sources among U.S. Hispanic adults. Methods:. Using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 4, Cycles 2 and 4 and HINTS 5, Cycle 2, we examined nine trust questions, divided into four domains of health communication sources [doctor, government health/charitable organizations, media (including Internet), and famil.

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