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PhysOrg.com 05/27/2020 11:38
In the past decade, there has been renewed thinking about human missions to the moon and perhaps even to Mars. Inevitably, terrestrial microorganisms on the bodies of astronauts, spaceships or equipment will come into contact with extraterrestrial environments. Researchers from the Radboudumc describe in an article in Astrobiology that bacteria can survive on an "extraterrestrial diet," which affected their pathogenic potential.
PhysOrg.com 05/27/2020 11:36
3-D micro-/nanofabrication holds the key to building a large variety of micro-/nanoscale materials, structures, devices, and systems with unique properties that do not manifest in their 2-D planar counterparts. Recently, scientists have explored some very different 3-D fabrication strategies such as kirigami and origami that make use of the science of cutting and folding 2-D materials/structures to create versatile 3-D shapes. Such new methodologies enable continuous and direct 2-D-to-3-D transformations through folding, bending and twisting, with which the occupied space can vary "nonlinearly" by several orders of magnitude compared to the conventional 3-D fabrications. More importantly, these new-concept kirigami/origami techniques provid.
PhysOrg.com 05/27/2020 11:35
When a new virus emerges, biologists rush to reconstruct its genome—a prerequisite for future diagnostic and vaccine development. The challenge with viral sequencing during an outbreak is that a sample from a patient, like saliva from a COVID-19 patient that was used for the very first SARS-COV-2 coronavirus sequencing effort, contains genomes of many other, often harmless, viruses. Not to mention hundreds of much larger bacterial genomes that live in our mouth and make it difficult to find the viral sequences among them.
PhysOrg.com 05/27/2020 11:33
The current crisis with its unique dynamics has been a far more catastrophic event that has created a nearly complete shutdown of the world's travel industry. Its impact on aviation has been much more severe than previous crises. Airlines came up with unusual ultra long-haul (ULH) repatriation flights worldwide. In other words, the pandemic has provided a testing ground for airlines to test the operational performance/capabilities of possible future routes.
PhysOrg.com 05/27/2020 11:32
How does hydrogen form blisters in ruthenium mirrors for extreme UV (EUV) lithography machines? An M2i research project by Chidozie Onwudinanti and colleagues at DIFFER, Eindhoven University of Technology and University of Twente explains the blistering process: a layer of tin contamination acts as a valve that lets hydrogen into the underlying ruthenium, but blocks it from leaving again, writes the team in the journal Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics.
PhysOrg.com 05/27/2020 11:31
Who could imagine a 21st century without data? Sophisticated information processing is key to the way societies function today. And it turns out it was also critical to the evolution of early states. According to new research led by an SFI team, the ability to store and process information was central to sociopolitical development across civilizations ranging from the Neolithic to the last millennium.
PhysOrg.com 05/26/2020 11:00
The normal functioning of our hearts is maintained by our body's control center—the brain—via an intricate network of nerves. When this communication is disrupted, it results in heart disease, including heart attacks, sudden cardiac death and problems in blood supply. As an added layer of safety, the heart has its own 'little brain', called the intracardiac nervous system (ICN) to monitor and correct any local disturbances in communication. The ICN is essential in supporting heart health and can even protect cardiac muscle during a heart attack. But it's not clear how exactly the ICN carries out these roles, because the organization of the neurons that make up the ICN are poorly understood; we don't know where they are located in the heart,
PhysOrg.com 05/26/2020 10:41
While national and international efforts to reverse the trend of deforestation have multiplied in recent years, there is still no clear evidence to suggest that these initiatives are actually working. A new paper published in One Earth, calls for a radically different approach that focuses on our understanding of how individuals make their choices about forests and livelihoods.
PhysOrg.com 05/26/2020 10:24
Scientists at the Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH) have participated in a study published today in the journal Scientific Reports on the settlement patterns of the last Neanderthal groups in the Cantabrian region at the Amalda I Cave (Gipuzkoa), which reveals the organization of the activities carried out there and alternation in its occupation by humans and carnivores.
PhysOrg.com 05/26/2020 10:20
Since the early 1900s, ecologists and conservationists have glimpsed wildlife via camera traps: temporary photo stations that capture evidence of whatever animals wander by. As a low-investment and unobtrusive technique, the camera trap has increasingly informed efforts to estimate the prevalence and geographic range of species, especially the elusive and endangered.
PhysOrg.com 05/26/2020 10:14
Leading academics from across Cranfield University are calling for a new approach to UK resilience. Writing in today's Financial Times, the academics believe that as well as lessons learnt from the response to COVID-19 there is a much wider lesson to be learnt about how the UK identifies, prepares and responds to threats and risks, such as to our safety, our national security and from climate change.

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