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Background. Pseudodiastrophic dysplasia (PDD) is a severe skeletal dysplasia associated with prenatal manifestation and early lethality. Clinically, PDD is classified as a ‘dysplasia with multiple joint dislocations’; however, the molecular aetiology of the disorder is currently unknown. Methods. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on three patients from two unrelated families, clinically diagnosed with PDD, in order to identify the underlying genetic cause. The functional effects of the identified variants were characterised using primary cells and human cell-based overexpression assays. Results. WES resulted in the identification of biallelic variants in the established skeletal dysplasia genes, B3GAT3 (family 1) and CANT1 (family 2).
Background. Asthenoteratospermia, one of the most common causes for male infertility, often presents with defective sperm heads and/or flagella. Multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) is one of the common clinical manifestations of asthenoteratospermia. Variants in several genes including DNAH1 , CEP135 , CATSPER2 and SUN5 are involved in the genetic pathogenesis of asthenoteratospermia. However, more than half of the asthenoteratospermia cases cannot be explained by the known pathogenic genes. Methods and results. Two asthenoteratospermia-affected men with severe MMAF (absent flagella in >90% spermatozoa) from consanguineous families were subjected to whole-exome sequencing. The first proband had a homozygous misse.
Biallelic mutations in any of the four mismatch repair genes MSH2 , MSH6 , MLH1 and PMS2 result in one of the most aggressive childhood cancer predisposition syndromes, termed constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome. In addition to a very high tumour risk, the CMMRD phenotype is often characterised by the presence of signs reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1. Although paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE) has been reported so far in three patients with CMMRD, it has not been considered a diagnostic feature of the syndrome. We report here two additional female patients with pSLE and CMMRD due to biallelic pathogenic variants in MSH6 . Hence, there are a total of five out of approximately 200 (2.5%) currently r.
Retinal diseases (RD) include inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD), for example, retinitis pigmentosa and Leber’s congenital amaurosis, or multifactorial forms, for example, age-related macular degeneration (AMD). IRDs are clinically and genetically heterogeneous in nature. To date, more than 200 genes are known to cause IRDs, which perturb the development, function and survival of rod and cone photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelial cells. Conversely, AMD, the most common cause of blindness in the developed world, is an acquired disease of the macula characterised by progressive visual impairment. To date, available therapeutic approaches for RD include nutritional supplements, neurotrophic factors, antiangiogenic drugs for wet AMD and g.
Background. The phenotypes of patients with the recently discovered, dominant, ETV6 -linked leukaemia predisposition and familial thrombocytopenia syndrome are variable, and the exact mechanism of leukaemogenesis remains unclear. Patients and Methods. Here, we present novel clinical and laboratory phenotypes of seven individuals from three families with ETV6 germline mutations and a refined genetic analysis of one child with additional high-hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (HD-ALL), aiming to elucidate second oncogenic hits. Results. Four individuals from two pedigrees harboured one novel or one previously described variant in the central domain of ETV6 (c.592C>T, p.Gln198* or c.641C>T, p.Pro241Leu, respectively). Neutropenia was
Background. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterised by three-dimensional deformity of the spine in the absence of a congenital spinal anomaly or neurological musculoskeletal disorder. The clinical variability and incomplete penetrance of some genes linked with AIS indicate that this disease constitutes an oligogenic trait. Objective. We aimed to explore the oligogenic nature of this disease and identify novel AIS genes. Methods. We analysed rare damaging variants within AIS-associated genes by using exome sequencing in 40 AIS trios and 183 sporadic patients. Results. Multiple variants within AIS-associated genes were identified in eight AIS trios, and five individuals harboured rare damaging va.
Background. Deletions removing 100s–1000s kb of DNA, and variable numbers of poorly characterised genes, are often found in patients with a wide range of developmental abnormalities. In such cases, understanding the contribution of the deletion to an individual’s clinical phenotype is challenging. Methods. Here, as an example of this common phenomenon, we analysed 41 patients with simple deletions of ~177 to ~2000 kb affecting one allele of the well-characterised, gene dense, distal region of chromosome 16 (16p13.3), referred to as ATR-16 syndrome. We characterised deletion extents and screened for genetic background effects, telomere position effect and compensatory upregulation of hemizygous genes. Results. We find the risk of developmental
Most of the human genome has a regulatory function in gene expression. The technological progress made in recent years permitted the revision of old and discovery of new mutations outside of the protein-coding regions that do affect human limb morphology. Steadily increasing discovery rate of such mutations suggests that until now the largely neglected part of the genome rises to its well-deserved prominence. In this review, we describe the recent technological advances permitting this unprecedented advance in identifying non-coding mutations. We especially focus on the mutations in cis -regulatory elements such as enhancers, and trans -regulatory elements such as miRNA and long non-coding RNA, linked to hereditary or inborn limb defects. W.
Background. Primary hereditary microcephaly (MCPH) comprises a large group of autosomal recessive disorders mainly affecting cortical development and resulting in a congenital impairment of brain growth. Despite the identification of >25 causal genes so far, it remains a challenge to distinguish between different MCPH forms at the clinical level. Methods. 7 patients with newly identified mutations in CDK5RAP2 (MCPH3) were investigated by performing prospective, extensive and systematic clinical, MRI, psychomotor, neurosensory and cognitive examinations under similar conditions. Results. All patients displayed neurosensory defects in addition to microcephaly. Small cochlea with incomplete partition type II was found in all cases and was associa.
The field of bone dysplasias can be daunting, as more than 400 separate disorders have been identified. The clinical diagnosis usually requires recognising image patterns on skeletal radiographs. This can be a challenge as most of these disorders are extremely rare, and even experienced clinicians will have seen only a fraction of these disorders. This is where the Bone Dysplasia Atlas can be extremely helpful. With thousands of X-ray images and clinical pictures on more than 250 bone dysplasias it provides a wealth of easily accessible information. For many disorders, radiographs are presented at different ages, so it is possible to get a sense of the change in phenotype over time. Each disorder also has a one-page description listing majo.
Dal-Ré R, Ayuso C. Reasons for and time to retraction of genetics articles published between 1970 and 2018. J Med Genet 2019;56:734–40. doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106137. Table 1 and 2 and supplementary files 1, 2, 3 and 5 require amendments. In table 1, Reasons for retraction, Unreliable information the correct n is 179 (% 10.7, 95% CI 9.2 to 12.3); Authorship issues the correct n is 169 (% 10.7; 95% CI 9.2 to 12.3). Table 1. Retracted genetics articles (N:1582). Reasons for retraction* and investigation, in 1970–2018. Reasons for retractionN (%) (95% CI)Reasons for retractionN (%) (95% CI)Fabrication / falsification a 377 (23.8) (21.7 to 26.0)Results not reproducible117 (7.4) (6.2 to 8.8)Plagiarism b 148 (9.4) (8.0 to 10.9)Contamination g.
Background. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disorder resulting in abnormal ciliary motility/structure, extremely heterogeneous at genetic and ultrastructural levels. We aimed, in light of extensive genotyping, to identify specific and quantitative ciliary beating anomalies, according to the ultrastructural phenotype. Methods. We prospectively included 75 patients with PCD exhibiting the main five ultrastructural phenotypes (n=15/group), screened all corresponding PCD genes and measured quantitative beating parameters by high-speed video-microscopy (HSV). Results. Sixty-eight (91%) patients carried biallelic mutations. Combined outer/inner dynein arms (ODA/IDA) defect induces total ciliary immotility, regardless of the gene i.
Background. Germline TP53 gene pathogenic variants (pv) cause a very high lifetime risk of developing cancer, almost 100% for women and 75% for men. In the UK, annual MRI breast screening is recommended for female TP53 pv carriers. The SIGNIFY study (Magnetic Resonance Imaging screening in Li Fraumeni syndrome: An exploratory whole body MRI) study reported outcomes of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) in a cohort of 44 TP53 pv carriers and 44 matched population controls. The results supported the use of a baseline WB-MRI screen in all adult TP53 pv carriers. Here we report the acceptability of WB-MRI screening and effects on psychosocial functioning and health-related quality of life in the short and medium terms. Methods. Psychosocial and other assess.
Introduction. Lynch syndrome (LS) and constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) are hereditary cancer syndromes associated with mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. Tumours show microsatellite instability (MSI), also reported at low levels in non-neoplastic tissues. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of high-sensitivity MSI (hs-MSI) assessment for the identification of LS and CMMRD in non-neoplastic tissues. Materials and methods. Blood DNA samples from 131 individuals were grouped into three cohorts: baseline (22 controls), training (11 CMMRD, 48 LS and 15 controls) and validation (18 CMMRD and 18 controls). Custom next generation sequencing panel and bioinformatics pipeline were used to detect insertions and deletions in microsate.
Background. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) can cause severe neurological morbidity but our understanding of the mechanisms that drive CCM formation and growth is still incomplete. Recent experimental data suggest that dysfunctional CCM3-deficient endothelial cell clones form cavernous lesions in conjunction with normal endothelial cells. Objective. In this study, we addressed the question whether endothelial cell mosaicism can be found in human cavernous tissue of CCM1 germline mutation carriers. Methods and results. Bringing together single-molecule molecular inversion probes in an ultra-sensitive sequencing approach with immunostaining to visualise the lack of CCM1 protein at single cell resolution, we identified a novel late postzy.
Background. Distal hereditary motor neuronopathies (dHMN) are a group of genetic disorders characterised by motor neuron degeneration leading to muscle weakness that are caused by mutations in various genes. HMNJ is a distinct form of the disease that has been identified in patients from the Jerash region of Jordan. Our aim was to identify and characterise the genetic cause of HMNJ. Methods. We used whole exome and Sanger sequencing to identify a novel genetic variant associated with the disease and then carried out immunoblot, immunofluorescence and apoptosis assays to extract functional data and clarify the effect of this novel SIGMAR1 mutation. Physical and neurological examinations were performed on selected patients and unaffected indivi.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a prototypical model of a neurodevelopmental metabolic disease that follows a cascade of pathological events affecting brain maturation and functioning. Neonatal screening and early treatment have eradicated the classical PKU phenotype in patients with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria (ECTPKU). However, effort is required to optimise the treatment of the disease to minimise the risk of lifelong neurological, cognitive and behavioural impairment, and to solve issues on the variability in clinical outcome that are rather not understood and has yet hampered a more personalised approach to its treatment. The aim of the present review is to focus on the inconsistencies in the clinical outcome of adult patie.
Background. A proportion of patients diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma reports a positive family history. Inherited variants in CDKN2A and several other genes have been shown to predispose to melanoma; however, the genetic basis of familial melanoma remains unknown in most cases. The objective of this study was to provide insight into the genetic basis of familial melanoma. Methods. In order to identify novel melanoma susceptibility genes, whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis was applied in a Dutch family with melanoma. The causality of a candidate variant was characterised by performing cosegregation analysis in five affected family members using patient-derived tissues and digital droplet PCR analysis to accurately quantify mutant allele f.
Material. Linked-read whole genome sequencing (WGS) presents a new opportunity for cost-efficient singleton sequencing in place of traditional trio-based designs while generating informative-phased variants, effective for recessive disorders when parental DNA is unavailable. Methods. We have applied linked-read WGS to identify novel causes of Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGORS), a condition recognised by short stature, microtia and patella hypo/aplasia.
Background. Ambroxol (ABX) has been suggested as an augmentative pharmacological agent for neuronopathic Gaucher disease (nGD). This study assessed the long-term safety and efficacy of combined therapy with high-dose ABX and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in nGD. Methods. ABX+ERT therapy was administered for 4.5 years in four patients with nGD. ABX was initiated at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg/day, and the dose was escalated up to 27 mg/kg/day. The target plasma level was 10 µmol/L or less. The changes in glucocerebrosidase activity, biochemical, safety and neurocognitive findings were assessed. Results. Enhanced residual GCcase activity was observed in all patients, as evidenced in both in vitro and in vivo studies. During the first 2 years of study.

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