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Obesity is associated with changes in the secretome of adipose tissue (AT), which affects the vasculature through endocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Wingless-related integration site 5A (WNT5A) and secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5), adipokines that regulate noncanonical Wnt signaling, are dysregulated in obesity. We hypothesized that WNT5A released from AT exerts endocrine and paracrine effects on the arterial wall through noncanonical RAC1-mediated Wnt signaling. In a cohort of 1004 humans with atherosclerosis, obesity was associated with increased WNT5A bioavailability in the circulation and the AT, higher expression of WNT5A receptors Frizzled 2 and Frizzled 5 in the human arterial wall, and increased vascular oxidative stress.
Malaria eradication is critically dependent on new therapeutics that target resistant Plasmodium parasites and block transmission of the disease. Here, we report that pantothenamide bioisosteres were active against blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites and also blocked transmission of sexual stages to the mosquito vector. These compounds were resistant to degradation by serum pantetheinases, showed favorable pharmacokinetic properties, and cleared parasites in a humanized mouse model of P. falciparum infection. Metabolomics revealed that coenzyme A biosynthetic enzymes converted pantothenamides into coenzyme A analogs that interfered with parasite acetyl–coenzyme A anabolism. Resistant parasites generated in vitro showed mutations in
Transforming growth factor–β1 (TGFβ1) has been identified as a major pathogenic factor underlying the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the current strategy of antagonizing TGFβ1 has failed to demonstrate favorable outcomes in clinical trials. To identify a different therapeutic approach, we designed a mass spectrometry–based DNA-protein interaction screen to find transcriptional repressors that bind to the TGFB1 promoter and identified Yin Yang 1 (YY1) as a potent repressor of TGFB1. YY1 bound directly to TGFB1 promoter regions and repressed TGFB1 transcription in human renal mesangial cells. In mouse models, YY1 was elevated in mesangial cells during early diabetic renal lesions and decreased in later stages, and knockdow.
KRAS represents an excellent therapeutic target in lung cancer, the most commonly mutated form of which can now be blocked using KRAS-G12C mutant-specific inhibitory trial drugs. Lung adenocarcinoma cells harboring KRAS mutations have been shown previously to be selectively sensitive to inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling. Here, we show that this effect is markedly enhanced by simultaneous inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) while maintaining selectivity for the KRAS-mutant genotype. Combined mTOR, IGF1R, and MEK inhibition inhibits the principal signaling pathways required for the survival of KRAS-mutant cells and produces marked tumor regres.
Aortic stenosis (AS) management is classically guided by symptoms and valvular metrics. However, the natural history of AS is dictated by coupling of the left ventricle, aortic valve, and vascular system. We investigated whether metrics of ventricular and vascular state add to the appreciation of AS state above valve gradient alone. Seventy patients with severe symptomatic AS were prospectively followed from baseline to 30 days after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Quality of life (QOL) was assessed using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. Left ventricular stroke work (SW LV ) and vascular impedance spectrums were calculated noninvasively using in-house models based on central blood pressure waveforms, along with h.
Ninety-seven percent of drug-indication pairs that are tested in clinical trials in oncology never advance to receive U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval. While lack of efficacy and dose-limiting toxicities are the most common causes of trial failure, the reason(s) why so many new drugs encounter these problems is not well understood. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis, we investigated a set of cancer drugs and drug targets in various stages of clinical testing. We show that—contrary to previous reports obtained predominantly with RNA interference and small-molecule inhibitors—the proteins ostensibly targeted by these drugs are nonessential for cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, the efficacy of each drug that we tested was unaffected by.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) patients are at risk of suffering from both pulmonary metastases or a second squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (LUSC). Differentiating pulmonary metastases from primary lung cancers is of high clinical importance, but not possible in most cases with current diagnostics. To address this, we performed DNA methylation profiling of primary tumors and trained three different machine learning methods to distinguish metastatic HNSC from primary LUSC. We developed an artificial neural network that correctly classified 96.4% of the cases in a validation cohort of 279 patients with HNSC and LUSC as well as normal lung controls, outperforming support vector machines (95.7%) and random forests (87.8%). Pre.
The transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedure has emerged as a minimally invasive treatment for patients with aortic valve stenosis (AVS). However, alterations in serum factor composition and biological activity after TAVR remain unknown. Here, we quantified the systemic inflammatory effects of the TAVR procedure and hypothesized that alterations in serum factor composition would modulate valve and cardiac fibrosis. Serum samples were obtained from patients with AVS immediately before their TAVR procedure (pre-TAVR) and about 1 month afterward (post-TAVR). Aptamer-based proteomic profiling revealed alterations in post-TAVR serum composition, and ontological analysis identified inflammatory macrophage factors implicated in myof.
Despite the substantial clinical benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), complete eradication of HIV has not been possible. The gastrointestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. The integrin α 4 β 7 facilitates homing of T lymphocytes to the gut by binding to the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) expressed on venules in gut-associated lymphoid tissue. CD4 + T cells with increased expression of α 4 β 7 are susceptible to HIV infection and may be key players in subsequent virus dissemination. Data from nonhuman primate models infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have suggested that blockade of the α 4 β 7 /MAdCAM-1 interaction may be effec.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can trigger progressive neurodegeneration, with tau pathology seen years after a single moderate-severe TBI. Identifying this type of posttraumatic pathology in vivo might help to understand the role of tau pathology in TBI pathophysiology. We used flortaucipir positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate whether tau pathology is present many years after a single TBI in humans. We examined PET data in relation to markers of neurodegeneration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), structural magnetic resonance imaging measures, and cognitive performance. Cerebral flortaucipir binding was variable, with many participants with TBI showing increases in cortical and white matter regions. At the group level, flortauci.
Targeted inhibitors to oncogenic kinases demonstrate encouraging clinical responses early in the treatment course; however, most patients will relapse because of target-dependent mechanisms that mitigate enzyme-inhibitor binding or through target-independent mechanisms, such as alternate activation of survival and proliferation pathways, known as adaptive resistance.

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