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Important gains have been made in the global fight against tuberculosis (TB). Each year, fewer people are being diagnosed with the disease. The recent World Health Organisation (WHO) global TB report, which gathers data from 202 countries and territories, shows a 6.3% reduction in the number of new TB infections between 2015 and 2018. This trend of decreasing incidence is also evident in Africa, where it fell from 275 per 100 000 people in 2015 to 231 per 100 000 in 2018.
In machine learning, generative adversarial networks (GANs) involve two artificial neural networks squaring off, one, the generator, trying to delude the other, the discriminator, into accepting synthetic data as real. Beyond their science and engineering applications, GANs can generate utterly convincing "photographs" of people who do not exist.
There is a group of diseases whose symptoms have a common origin: a lesion in the endothelial tissue that covers the inside of the blood vessels. This lesion, called TMA (Thrombotic Microangiopathy), causes a migration of platelets to cover the wound. Smaller blood vessels collapse, producing a series of symptoms such as anaemia, hypertension, and failure in organs such as the kidney, the central nervous system, or the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems.
Scientist Mary Rodgers spends her days tracking killers—elusive, constantly mutating viruses that travel the globe and are responsible for illness or death in millions of people. Wednesday, in an article published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Rodgers and her team at Abbott, along with co-authors at the University of Missouri, announced their discovery of the first new subtype of the HIV virus identified since 2000.
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue of the human body (about 40%) and it plays essential role in locomotion and vital functions (heart rate, breathing). During aging, in a large majority of individuals a loss of muscle mass, quality and strength occurs: this is called sarcopenia. This state, leading to disability and dependence, was declared as a disease in 2016 by the World Health Organization.
The body's process for manufacturing fatty acids is regulated by the enzyme FASN. In normal cells, this is not a very active process—except occasionally in the liver and adipose tissue—since most of the fatty acids we need for cell maintenance are obtained from the diet. However, it is known that FASN is overexpressed in many types of cancer, such as prostate, breast, thyroid, colorectal, bladder, lung, and pancreatic cancer. Therefore, even though its relationship with the disease is still poorly understood, scientists from around the world are studying FASN as a potential target for cancer treatment.

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