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Gluconobacter oxydans has the unique property of a glucose oxidation system in the periplasmic space, where glucose is oxidized incompletely to keto-gluconic acids in a nicotinamide-cofactors-independent manner. Elimination of the gdhM gene for membrane-bound glucose dehydrogenase, the first enzyme for the periplasmic glucose oxidation system, induces a metabolic change whereby glucose is oxidized in the cytoplasm to acetic acid. G. oxydans strain NBRC3293 possesses two molecular species of type-II NADH dehydrogenase (NDH), the primary and auxiliary NDHs that oxidize NAD℗H by reducing ubiquinone in the cell membrane. The substrate specificities of the two NDHs were different from each other, i.e. p-NDH oxidizes NADH specifically but a-NDH o.
Ascidians are prolific colonisers of new environments and possess a range of well-studied features that contribute to their successful spread, but the role of their symbiotic microbial communities in their long-term establishment is mostly unknown. Here, we utilized next-generation amplicon sequencing to provide a comprehensive description of the microbiome in the colonial ascidian Clavelina oblonga , and examined differences in the composition, diversity, and structure of symbiont communities in the host's native and invasive ranges. To identify host haplotypes, we sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). C. oblonga harboured a diverse microbiome spanning 42 bacterial and three archaeal phyla. Co.
The treatment of patients suffering from Aspergillus diseases is hampered due to infections with Aspergillus fumigatus that are already resistant to medical azoles. Previous work has suggested that A. fumigatus likely gains resistance through environmental azole exposure in so-called hotspots. Here, we investigated A. fumigatus resistance dynamics over time, at three sites at which farmers used azole fungicides for crop protection. Over 16 months 114 samples were taken from stockpiles of decaying plant waste. A. fumigatus and azole fungicide residues were ubiquitously present in the plant waste. On average 10 5 A. fumigatus CFU/g was recovered of which roughly half were itraconazole and tebuconazole resistant. Similar tandem repeat-mediated.
The initial steps of Salmonella pathogenesis involve adhesion and invasion of host epithelial cells. While well-studied for S . Typhimurium, the factors contributing to this process in other, host-adapted serovars remains unexplored. Here, we screened clinical isolates of serovars Gallinarum, Dublin, Choleraesuis, Typhimurium and Enteritidis for adhesion and invasion of intestinal epithelial cell lines of human, porcine, and chicken origins. 30 isolates with altered infectivity were used for genomic analyses and 14 genes and novel mutations associated with high or low infectivity were identified. The functions of candidate genes included virulence gene expression regulation, cell wall or membrane synthesis and components. The role of severa.
Low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma has been studied for disinfection purposes. When plasma is exposed to water, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are generated and preserved in the water fraction (plasma-treated water; PTW) that consequently exhibits bactericidal activity. At low temperatures, one of the bactericidal components of PTW is peroxynitric acid (PNA). Importantly, PNA can also be synthesized by chemical reaction, without exposure to plasma. In this study, we evaluated the bactericidal properties of PNA based on reaction kinetics in comparison with other disinfectants. The analysis, based on dose-dependent effects showed that PNA exhibited about 1 and 10 times the bactericidal activity of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and p.
Helicoverpa armigera is a major insect pest of several crops worldwide. This insect is susceptible to some Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry insecticidal proteins expressed in transgenic crops or used in biopesticides. Previously, we identified H. armigera prohibitin (PHB) as a Cry1Ac-binding protein. Here, we further analyzed the potential role of PHB as Cry toxin receptor in comparison to cadherin (CAD), well recognized as Cry1Ac-receptor. HaPHB-2 midgut protein and HaCAD toxin binding region fragment (TBR) from H. armigera were expressed in Escherichia coli cells and binding assays with different Cry1 toxins were performed. We demonstrated that Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa toxins bound to HaPHB-2 similarly as to HaCAD-TBR. Different Cry1Ab mu.
Serpentinization can generate highly reduced fluids replete with hydrogen (H 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ), potent reductants capable of driving microbial methanogenesis and methanotrophy, respectively. However, CH 4 in serpentinized waters is thought to be primarily abiogenic, raising key questions about the relative importance of methanogens and methanotrophs in the production and consumption of CH 4 in these systems. Herein, we apply molecular approaches to examine the functional capability and activity of microbial CH 4 cycling in serpentinization-impacted subsurface waters intersecting multiple rock and water types within the Samail Ophiolite of Oman. Abundant 16S rRNA genes and transcripts affiliated with the methanogenic genus, Methanobact.
Numerous studies relate differences in microbial communities to human health and disease; however, little is known about microbial changes that occur postmortem or the possible applications of microbiome analysis in the field of forensic science. The aim of this review was to study the microbiome and its applications in forensic sciences and to determine the main lines of investigation that are emerging, as well as its possible contributions to the forensic field. A systematic review of the human microbiome in relation to forensic science was carried out by following PRISMA guidelines. This study sheds light on the role of microbiome research in the postmortem interval during the process of decomposition, identifying death caused by drownin.
Heterotrophic bacteria actively participate in the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur on Earth. The heterotrophic bacterium Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134 contains several enzymes involved in sulfur oxidation, but how these enzymes work together to oxidize sulfide in the bacterium has not been studied. Using gene-deletion and whole-cell assays, we determined that the bacterium uses sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase to oxidize sulfide to polysulfide, which is further oxidized to sulfite by persulfide dioxygenase. Sulfite spontaneously reacts with polysulfide to produce thiosulfate. The sulfur-oxidizing (Sox) system oxidizes thiosulfate to sulfate. Flavocytochrome c sulfide dehydrogenase enhances thiosulfate oxidation by the Sox system but couple.
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are ubiquitous aquatic microorganisms that form intracellular nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) or greigite (Fe 3 S 4 ) in a genetically controlled manner. Magnetite and greigite synthesis requires MTB to transport a large amount of iron from the environment. Most intracellular iron was proposed to be contained within the crystals. However, recent mass spectrometry studies suggest that MTB may contain a large amount of iron that is not precipitated in crystals. Here, we attempted to resolve these discrepancies by performing chemical and magnetic assays to quantify the different iron pools in the magnetite-forming strain Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1, as well as in mutant strains showing defects in cryst.
Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are ubiquitous and abundant microorganisms that play key roles in global nitrogen and carbon biogeochemical cycling. Despite recent advances in understanding NOB physiology and taxonomy, currently very few cultured NOB or representative NOB genome sequences from marine environments exist. In this study, we employed enrichment culturing and genomic approaches to shed light on the phylogeny and metabolic capacity of marine NOB. We successfully enriched two marine NOB (designated MSP and DJ) and obtained a high-quality metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) from each organism. The maximum nitrite oxidation rates of the MSP and DJ enrichment cultures were 13.8 and 30.0 μM nitrite per day, respectively, with these opt.
Western Lake Erie (Laurentian Great Lakes) is prone to annual cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cHABs) dominated by Microcystis spp. that often yield microcystin toxin concentrations exceeding the federal EPA recreational contact advisory of 8 μg liter –1 . In August 2014, microcystin levels were detected in finished drinking water above the World Health Organization 1.0 μg liter –1 threshold for consumption, leading to a 2-day disruption in the supply of drinking water for >400,000 residents of Toledo, Ohio (USA). Subsequent metatranscriptomic analysis of the 2014 bloom event provided evidence that release of toxin into the water supply was likely caused by cyanophage lysis that transformed a portion of the intracellular microcystin poo.
Viruses are ubiquitous particles comprising genetic material that can infect bacteria, archaea, and fungi, as well as human and other animal cells. Given that determining virus composition and function in association with states of human health and disease is of increasing interest, we anticipate that the field of viral metagenomics will continue to expand and be applied in a variety of areas ranging from surveillance to discovery and will rely heavily upon the continued development of reference materials and databases. Information regarding viral composition and function readily translates into biological and clinical applications, including the rapid sequence identification of pathogenic viruses in various sample types. However, viral met.
Syringate and vanillate are the major metabolites of lignin biodegradation. In Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6, syringate is O demethylated to gallate by consecutive reactions catalyzed by DesA and LigM, and vanillate is O demethylated to protocatechuate by a reaction catalyzed by LigM. The gallate ring is cleaved by DesB, and protocatechuate is catabolized via the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway. The transcriptions of desA , ligM , and desB are induced by syringate and vanillate, while those of ligM and desB are negatively regulated by the MarR-type transcriptional regulator DesR, which is not involved in desA regulation. Here, we clarified the regulatory system for desA transcription by analyzing the IclR-type transcriptional regulator
Proteins that oxidize extracellular substrates in Gram-positive bacteria are poorly understood. Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum is an actinobacterium that respires aerobically on extracellular ferrous ions at pH 1.5. In situ absorbance measurements were conducted on turbid suspensions of intact Fm. acidiphilum using an integrating cavity absorption meter designed for that purpose. Initial velocity kinetic studies monitored the appearance of product ferric ions in the presence of catalytic quantities of cells. Cell-catalyzed iron oxidation obeyed the Michaelis-Menten equation with K m and V max values of 71 μM and 0.29 fmol/min/cell, respectively. Limited-turnover kinetic studies were conducted with higher concentrations of cells to detect and mo.
The bacterial protease inhibitor domains known as Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitors (SSI) are rarely found in fungi. Genome analysis of a fungal pathogen, Choanephora cucurbitarum KUS-F28377, revealed 11 SSI-like domains that are horizontally transferred and sequentially diverged during evolution. We investigated the molecular function of fungal SSI-like domains of C. cucurbitarum , designated "choanepins." Among the proteins tested, only choanepin9 showed inhibitory activity against subtilisin as the target protease, accounting for 47% of the inhibitory activity of bacterial SSI. However, the binding affinity (expressed as the dissociation constant [ K d ]) of choanepin9 measured via microscale thermophoresis was 21 nM, whereas that for b.
Iron (Fe) is one of the most important micronutrients for most life forms on earth. While abundant in soil, Fe bioavailability in oxic soil is very low. Under environmental conditions, bacteria need to acquire sufficient Fe to sustain growth while limiting the energy cost of siderophore synthesis. Biofilm formation might mitigate this Fe stress, since it was shown to accumulate Fe in certain Gram-negative bacteria and that this Fe could be mobilized for uptake. However, it is still unclear if, and to what extent, the amount of Fe accumulated in the biofilm can sustain growth and if the mobilization of this local Fe pool is modulated by the availability of environmental Fe (i.e., Fe outside the biofilm matrix). Here, we use a nondomesticated.
Class IIa bacteriocin antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a compelling alternative to current antimicrobials because of potential specific activity toward antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Engineering of these molecules would be enhanced by a better understanding of AMP sequence-activity relationships to improve efficacy in vivo and limit effects of off-target activity. Toward this goal, we experimentally evaluated 210 natural and variant class IIa bacteriocins for antimicrobial activity against six strains of enterococci. Inhibitory activity was ridge regressed to AMP sequence to predict performance, achieving an area under the curve of 0.70 and demonstrating the potential of statistical models for id.

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