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Purpose:. The genomic landscape of gliomas has been characterized and now contributes to disease classification, yet the relationship between molecular profile and disease progression and treatment response remain poorly understood. Experimental Design: We integrated prospective clinical sequencing of 1,004 primary and recurrent tumors from 923 glioma patients with clinical and treatment phenotypes. Results:. Thirteen percent of glioma patients harbored a pathogenic germline variant, including a subset associated with heritable genetic syndromes and variants mediating DNA repair dysfunctions (29% of the total) that were associated with somatic biallelic inactivation and mechanism-specific somatic phenotypes.
Purpose:. Oral bioavailability of docetaxel is poor. Absorption could be improved by development of pharmaceutical formulations based on docetaxel solid dispersions, denoted ModraDoc001 capsule and ModraDoc006 tablet (both 10 mg) and coadministration of ritonavir, an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein. In this study, the safety, MTD, recommended phase II dose (RP2D), pharmacokinetics, and preliminary antitumor activity of oral docetaxel combined with ritonavir in a once-weekly continuous schedule was investigated. Patients and Methods:. Patients with metastatic solid tumors were included. Dose escalation was performed using a classical 3+3 design. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed for up to 48 hours after drug administration. Safety
Purpose:. Protein kinases are known to play a prominent role in oncogenic progression across multiple cancer subtypes, yet their role in prostate cancer progression remains underexplored. The purpose of this study was to identify kinases that drive prostate cancer progression. Experimental Design: To discover kinases that drive prostate cancer progression, we investigated the association between gene expression of all known kinases and long-term clinical outcomes in tumor samples from 545 patients with high-risk disease. We evaluated the impact of genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of the most significant kinase associated with metastatic progression in vitro and in vivo . Results:. DNA-dependent protein kinase ( DNAPK ) was identified as t.
Purpose:. Uveal melanomas (UM) are genetically simple tumors carrying few copy number alterations (CNA) and a low mutation burden, except in rare MBD4 -deficient, hypermutated cases. The genomics of uveal melanoma metastatic progression has not been described. We assessed the genetic heterogeneity of primary and metastatic MBD4 -proficient and -deficient uveal melanomas. Experimental Design: We prospectively collected 75 metastatic and 16 primary samples from 25 consecutive uveal melanoma patients, and performed whole-exome sequencing. Results:. MBD4 -proficient uveal melanomas contained stable genomes at the nucleotide level, acquiring few new single nucleotide variants (SNVs; 16 vs. 13 in metastases and primary tumors, respectively), and no.
Purpose:. Radiotherapy (RT) has long been and remains the only treatment option for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). However, all patients show evidence of disease progression within months of completing RT. No further clinical benefit has been achieved using alternative radiation strategies. Here, we tested the hypothesis that histone demethylase inhibition by GSK-J4 enhances radiation-induced DNA damage, making it a potential radiosensitizer in the treatment of DIPG. Experimental Design: We evaluated the effects of GSK-J4 on genes associated with DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in DIPG cells by RNA sequence, ATAC sequence, and quantitative real-time PCR. Radiation-induced DNA DSB repair was analyzed by immunocytochemistry of D.
Purpose:. CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T therapy has shown impactful results in treatment of B-cell malignancies. However, immune recognition of the murine scFv may render subsequent infusion(s) ineffective. Also, nonselective expansion of both CAR-transduced and nontransduced T cells during the production stage affects the yield and purity of final products. Here, we aim to develop a humanized selective (hs) CD19 CAR to solve the above problems. Experimental Design: A CD19 hsCAR was designed, which incorporated a short selective domain between the humanized heavy chain and light chain. The CAR was examined for its property, and then trialed in 5 highly treated B-ALL patients. Results:. hsCAR possessed around 6-fold higher affinity to.
Both immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and antiangiogenesis agents have changed the landscape of cancer treatment in the modern era. While antiangiogenesis agents have demonstrated activities in tumors with high vascularization, including renal cell carcinoma and colorectal cancer, the effect of ICIs has been seen mainly in immunologically recognized tumors, with highly immune-infiltrative lymphocytes. The main challenge in the drug development of ICIs is moving their activities to noninflamed tumors and overcoming resistance that is driven, in part, by the immune-suppressive microenvironment. Angiogenesis factors drive immune suppression by directly suppressing the antigen-presenting cells as well as immune effector cells or through augme.
Purpose:. Limited options exist for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer progressing after 1 or more lines of therapy. A phase II study in patients with previously treated metastatic pancreatic cancer showed that combining GVAX pancreas (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting allogeneic pancreatic tumor cells) with cyclophosphamide (Cy) and CRS-207 (live, attenuated Listeria monocytogenes expressing mesothelin) resulted in median overall survival (OS) of 6.1 months, which compares favorably with historical OS achieved with chemotherapy. In the current study, we compared Cy/GVAX + CRS-207, CRS-207 alone, and standard chemotherapy in a three-arm, randomized, controlled phase IIb trial. Patients and Methods:. Patients wit.
Purpose:. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) responds to VEGF receptor inhibitors. VEGF signals through RAS/RAF/MEK signaling. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the VEGF receptor inhibitor pazopanib and MEK inhibitor trametinib in advanced solid tumors and DTC. Patients and Methods:. Patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled in a phase I, multicenter trial with a DTC expansion cohort. Patients received pazopanib 400–800 mg and trametinib 1–2 mg daily. Efficacy in the expansion cohort was assessed with objective response (OR) at 6 months of treatment. Results:. Twenty-six patients were enrolled in five dose levels. MTD was not reached; the recommended phase II dose was pazopanib 800 mg orally and trametinib 2 mg orally every day.
Purpose:. To investigate the clinical relevance of macrophages in liver metastasis of colorectal cancer and their influence on angiogenesis and patient survival. Moreover to evaluate specific blood monocytes as markers of disease recurrence. Experimental design: In a mouse model with spontaneous liver metastasis, the angiogenic characteristics of tumor- and metastasis (MAM)-associated macrophages were evaluated. Macrophages and the vasculature from 130 primary tumor (pTU) and 123 patients with liver metastasis were assessed. In vivo and in human samples, the clinical relevance of macrophage VEGFR1 expression was analyzed. Blood samples from patients ( n = 157, 80 pTU and 77 liver metastasis) were analyzed for assessing VEGFR1-positive (VEGFR.
Purpose:. The clinical use of MEK inhibitors in uveal melanoma is limited by the rapid acquisition of resistance. This study has used multiomics approaches and drug screens to identify the pan-HDAC inhibitor panobinostat as an effective strategy to limit MEK inhibitor resistance. Experimental Design: Mass spectrometry–based proteomics and RNA-Seq were used to identify the signaling pathways involved in the escape of uveal melanoma cells from MEK inhibitor therapy. Mechanistic studies were performed to evaluate the escape pathways identified, and the efficacy of the MEK-HDAC inhibitor combination was demonstrated in multiple in vivo models of uveal melanoma. Results:. We identified a number of putative escape pathways that were upregulated fol.
Purpose:. Conflicting data have been reported on the prognostic value of PD-L1 protein and gene expression in breast cancer. Experimental Design: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science Core Collection were searched, and data were extracted independently by two researchers.
Purpose:. Molecular properties associated with complete response or acquired resistance to concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CRT) are incompletely characterized. Experimental Design: We performed integrated whole-exome/transcriptome sequencing and immune infiltrate analysis on rectal adenocarcinoma tumors prior to neoadjuvant CRT (pre-CRT) and at time of resection (post-CRT) in 17 patients [8 complete/partial responders, 9 nonresponders (NR)]. Results:. CRT was not associated with increased tumor mutational burden or neoantigen load and did not alter the distribution of established somatic tumor mutations in rectal cancer.
Purpose:. APOBEC3-UNG imbalance contributes to hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibition and somatic mutations. We aimed to explore the associations between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk and genetic polymorphisms predisposing the imbalance. Experimental Design: Genetic polymorphisms at APOBEC3 promoter and UNG enhancer regions were genotyped in 5,621 participants using quantitative PCR. HBV mutations (nt.1600–nt.1945, nt.2848–nt.155) were determined by Sanger sequencing. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was applied to detect the transcriptional activity. Effects of APOBEC3B / UNG SNPs and expression levels on HCC prognosis were evaluated with a cohort of 400 patients with HCC and public databases, respectively. Results:. APOBEC3B rs2267401-G all.
Purpose:. The strong association between BAP1 mutations and metastasizing Class 2 uveal melanoma (UM) suggests that epigenetic alterations may play a significant role in tumor progression. Thus, we characterized the impact of BAP1 loss on the DNA methylome in UM. Experimental Design: Global DNA methylation was analyzed in 47 Class 1 and 45 Class 2 primary UMs and in UM cells engineered to inducibly deplete BAP1. RNA-Seq was analyzed in 80 UM samples and engineered UM cells. Results:. Hypermethylation on chromosome 3 correlated with downregulated gene expression at several loci, including 3p21, where BAP1 is located. Gene set analysis of hypermethylated and downregulated genes identified axon guidance and melanogenesis as deregulated pathways,
Since the first approval of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg; Pfizer; CD33 targeted), two additional antibody–drug conjugates (ADC), brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris; Seattle Genetics, Inc.; CD30 targeted) and inotuzumab ozogamicin (Besponsa; Pfizer; CD22 targeted), have been approved for hematologic cancers and 1 ADC, trastuzumab emtansine (Kadcyla; Genentech; HER2 targeted), has been approved to treat breast cancer.
No immunotherapy strategy is yet offering consistent results against pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. A randomized clinical trial testing repeated immunization with a Listeria monocytogenes –based vaccine encoding for mesothelin in combination with a GM-CSF–transfected allogeneic pancreatic cell vaccine reports no survival benefit for the vaccinated patients. See related article by Le et al., p. 5493.
The MERIT study was a single-arm, phase II clinical trial of nivolumab for the second- or third-line treatment of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in Japan. MERIT confirmed that PD-1 inhibition has activity in mesothelioma and led to the regulatory approval of nivolumab for the treatment of mesothelioma in Japan. See related article by Okada et al., p. 5485.

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