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The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, spread worldwide after its emergence in China. Whether rich or poor, all nations are struggling to cope with this new global health crisis. The speed of the threat’s emergence and the quick response required from public health authorities and the public itself makes evident the need for a major reform in pandemic surveillance and notification systems. The development and implementation of a graded, individual-level pandemic notification system could be an effective tool to combat future threats of epidemics. This paper describes a prototype model of such a notification system and its potential advantages and challenges for implemen.
Background: People obtain information on the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from the internet and other sources. Understanding the factors related to such information sources aids health professionals in educating individuals. Objective: This study used data collected from the online survey study on COVID-19 in Taiwan to examine what major COVID-19 information sources are available and which sources are significantly related to the self-confidence of people in coping with COVID-19 in Taiwan. Methods: A total of 1904 participants (1270 non–health-care workers and 634 health care workers) were recruited from the Facebook advertisement. Their major sources of information about COVID-19, the relationships between the sources and demographic fac.
Background: Digital technologies connect young people with health services and resources that support their self-care. The lack of accessible, reliable digital resources tailored to young people with persistent musculoskeletal pain is a significant gap in the health services in Australia. Recognizing the intense resourcing required to develop and implement effective electronic health (eHealth) interventions, the adaptation of extant, proven digital technologies may improve access to pain care with cost and time efficiencies. Objective: This study aimed to test the acceptability and need for adaptation of extant digital technologies, the pain HEALTH website and the iCanCope with Pain app, for use by young Australians with musculoskeletal pai.
Background: In the era of information explosion, the use of the internet to assist with clinical practice and diagnosis has become a cutting-edge area of research. The application of medical informatics allows patients to be aware of their clinical conditions, which may contribute toward the prevention of several chronic diseases and disorders. Objective: In this study, we applied machine learning techniques to construct a medical database system from electronic medical records (EMRs) of subjects who have undergone health examination. This system aims to provide online self-health evaluation to clinicians and patients worldwide, enabling personalized health and preventive health. Methods: We built a medical database system based on the lite.
Background: Dialog agents (chatbots) have a long history of application in health care, where they have been used for tasks such as supporting patient self-management and providing counseling. Their use is expected to grow with increasing demands on health systems and improving artificial intelligence (AI) capability. Approaches to the evaluation of health care chatbots, however, appear to be diverse and haphazard, resulting in a potential barrier to the advancement of the field. Objective: This study aims to identify the technical (nonclinical) metrics used by previous studies to evaluate health care chatbots. Methods: Studies were identified by searching 7 bibliographic databases (eg, MEDLINE and PsycINFO) in addition to conducting backwa.
Background: The use of digital technologies is increasing in health care. However, studies evaluating digital health technologies can be characterized by selective nonparticipation of older people, although older people represent one of the main user groups of health care. Objective: We examined whether and how participation in an exergame intervention study was associated with age, gender, and heart failure (HF) symptom severity. Methods: A subset of data from the HF-Wii study was used. The data came from patients with HF in institutional settings in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Selective nonparticipation was examined as resulting from two processes: (non)recruitment and self-selection. Baseline information on age, gender,
Background: Web-based self-care interventions have the potential to reduce health inequalities by removing barriers to access to health care. However, there is a lack of evidence about the equalizing effects of these interventions on chronic conditions. Objective: This study investigated the differences in the effectiveness of web-based behavioral change interventions for the self-care of high burden chronic health conditions (eg, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], diabetes, and osteoarthritis) across socioeconomic and cultural groups. Methods: A systematic review was conducted, following Cochrane review guidelines. We conducted searches in Ovid Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online and Cumulative Index
Background: Facebook’s advertising platform reaches most US households and has been used for health-related research recruitment. The platform allows for advertising segmentation by age, gender, and location; however, it does not explicitly allow for targeting by race or ethnicity to facilitate a diverse participant pool. Objective: This study looked at the efficacy of zip code targeting in Facebook advertising to reach blacks/African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos who smoke daily for a quit-smoking web-based social media study. Methods: We ran a general market campaign for 61 weeks using all continental US zip codes as a baseline. Concurrently, we ran 2 campaigns to reach black/African American and Hispanic-/Latino-identified adults, targ.
Background: Primary care is a major access point for the initial treatment of depression, but the management of these patients is far from optimal. The lack of time in primary care is one of the major difficulties for the delivery of evidence-based psychotherapy. During the last decade, research has focused on the development of brief psychotherapy and cost-effective internet-based interventions mostly based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Very little research has focused on alternative methods of treatment for depression using CBT. Thus, there is a need for research into other therapeutic approaches. Objective: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of 3 low-intensity, internet-based psychological interventions (healthy lifest.
Background: Clinical governance of medical mobile apps is challenging, and there is currently no standard method for assessing the quality of such apps. In 2018, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) developed a framework for assessing the required level of evidence for digital health technologies (DHTs), as determined by their clinical function. The framework can potentially be used to assess mobile apps, which are a subset of DHTs. To be used reliably in this context, the framework must allow unambiguous classification of an app’s clinical function. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether mobile health apps could be reliably classified using the NICE evidence standards framework for DHTs. Met.
Background: Musculoskeletal conditions are the second greatest contributor to disability worldwide and have significant individual, societal, and economic implications. Due to the growing burden of musculoskeletal disability, an integrated and strategic response is urgently required. Digital health interventions provide high-reach, low-cost, readily accessible, and scalable interventions for large patient populations that address time and resource constraints. Objective: This review aimed to investigate if digital health interventions are effective in reducing pain and functional disability in patients with musculoskeletal conditions. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken to address the research objective. The review was conducted in
Background: Health services researchers spend a substantial amount of time performing integration, cleansing, interpretation, and aggregation of raw data from multiple public or private data sources. Often, each researcher (or someone in their team) duplicates this effort for their own project, facing the same challenges and experiencing the same pitfalls discovered by those before them. Objective: This paper described a design process for creating a data warehouse that includes the most frequently used databases in health services research. Methods: The design is based on a conceptual iterative process model framework that utilizes the sociotechnical systems theory approach and includes the capacity for subsequent updates of the existing d.
Background: Technology is a potentially powerful tool to assist patients with transitions of care during and after hospitalization. Patients with low health literacy who are predisposed to poor health outcomes are particularly poised to benefit from such interventions. However, this population may lack the ability to effectively engage with technology. Although prior research studied the role of health literacy in technology access/use among outpatients, hospitalized patient populations have not been investigated in this context. Further, with the rapid uptake of technology, access may no longer be pertinent, and differences in technological capabilities may drive the current digital divide. Thus, characterizing the digital literacy of hosp.
Background: The population of Europe is aging rapidly. Most community-dwelling older adults (CDOAs) want to remain in their homes, particularly those experiencing functional decline. Politicians and academics repeatedly praise technological instruments for being the preferred solution for helping older adults with deteriorating health to remain at home. Objective: This study aimed to understand the perceptions of CDOAs and their informal caregivers (ICs) and professional caregivers (PCs) about technologies that can help keep older adults at home. Methods: This qualitative study used personal interviews, focus groups, and photo-elicitation interviews to better understand the perceptions of a convenience sample of 68 CDOAs, 21 ICs, and 32 PCs.
Background: In the homeless population, barriers to housing and supportive services include a lack of control or access to data. Disparate data formats and storage across multiple organizations hinder up-to-date intersystem access to records and a unified view of an individual’s health and documentation history. The utility of blockchain to solve interoperability in health care is supported in recent literature, but the technology has yet to be tested in real-life conditions encompassing the complex regulatory standards in the health sector. Objective: This study aimed to test the feasibility and performance of a blockchain system in a homeless community to securely store and share data across a system of providers in the health care ecosys.
Background: Although online physician rating information is popular among Chinese health consumers, the limited number of reviews greatly hampers the effective usage of this information. To date, little has been discussed on the variables that influence online physician rating from the users’ perspective. Objective: This study aims to investigate the factors associated with the actual behavior and intention of generating online physician rating information in urban China. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted, and the valid responses of 1371 Chinese health consumers were recorded. Using a pilot interview, we analyzed the effects of demographics, health variables, cognitive variables, and technology-related variables on o.
Background: The number of older adults with vision impairment (VI) is growing. As health care services increasingly call for patients to use technology, it is important to examine internet/health information technology (HIT) use among older adults with VI. Objective: This study aimed to examine (1) the rates of internet/HIT use among older adults with VI compared with a matched sample of their peers without VI, (2) associations of VI with internet/HIT use, and (3) association of HIT use with psychological distress, assessed with the Kessler-6 screen. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2013 to 2018 US National Health Interview Survey. Older adults (aged ≥65 years) with self-reported VI were matched with older adults without VI, in a 1:1 ra.
Background: Self-management of type 1 diabetes (T1D) requires numerous decisions and actions by people with T1D and their caregivers and poses many daily challenges. For those with T1D and a developmental disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), more complex challenges arise, though these remain largely unstudied. Objective: This study aimed to better understand the barriers and facilitators of raising a child with T1D and ASD. Secondary analysis of web-based content (phase 1) and telephone interviews (phase 2) were conducted to further expand the existing knowledge on the challenges and successes faced by these families. Methods: Phase 1 involved a qualitative analysis of publicly available online forums and blog posts by caregiver.
Background: In today’s society, commercial physical activity apps (eg, Fitbit and Strava) are ubiquitous and hold considerable potential to increase physical activity behavior. Many commercial physical activity apps incorporate social components, in particular app-specific communities (allowing users to interact with other app users) or the capacity to connect to existing social networking platforms (eg, Facebook or Instagram). There is a growing need to gain greater insights into whether commercial physical activity apps and specific components of these apps (social components) are beneficial in facilitating physical activity. Objective: This study aimed to examine the relationship between the use of commercial physical activity apps and e.
Background: In case of a population-wide infectious disease outbreak, such as the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), people’s online activities could significantly affect public concerns and health behaviors due to difficulty in accessing credible information from reliable sources, which in turn causes people to seek necessary information on the web.

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