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We present the case of a 12-year-old girl with medically refractory epilepsy and a vagal nerve stimulator (VNS), who experienced severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with respiratory events closely matching her VNS settings. We demonstrated a real-time decrease in OSA through an in-laboratory VNS titration study, decreasing her VNS frequency from 20 Hz to 10 Hz. We were able to demonstrate a baseline level of OSA by turning off the VNS. We then effectively treated her residual OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Novel to our case is that this in-laboratory VNS titration did not result in any subsequent increase in seizure frequency. After 5 months, her seizure frequency had decreased. Our case demonstrates that in-laborator.
Study Objectives:. To compare the secular trends of sleep/wake patterns in school-aged children in Hong Kong and Shanghai, two major metropolitan cities in China with two different policies that school start time was delayed in Shanghai, but advanced in Hong Kong in 10 years’ time. Methods:. Participants were from two waves of cross-sectional school-based surveys of children aged 6 to 11 years.
Gupta MA. Effect of varying definitions of hypopnea on the calculation of the apnea-hypopnea index may depend upon the level of sympathetic activation: results from a patient with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Sleep Med. 2019;15(10):1555.
The effect of hormone therapy on sleep-disordered breathing in transgender patients has not been described. We present three cases of patients undergoing gender reassignment and treated with hormone replacement. The first case was a transgender woman (assigned male at birth) with a prolonged history of severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that resolved following initiation of female sex hormones. The second and third cases both address transgender males (assigned female at birth) in whom OSA developed following initiation of male sex hormones (with pretreatment polysomnography documenting absence of OSA). The growing interest in transgender health warrants further evaluation of the effects of related therapies on sleep and sleep-disordered
Study Objectives:. Children with craniopharyngioma are at risk for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Multiple Sleep Latency Testing (MSLT) is the gold standard for objective evaluation of EDS; however, it is time and resource intensive. We compared the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale (M-ESS) and MSLT in monitoring EDS in children with craniopharyngioma. Methods:. Seventy patients (ages 6 to 20 years) with craniopharyngioma completed the M-ESS and were evaluated by polysomnography and MSLT. Evaluations were made after surgery, if performed, and before proton therapy. Results:. MSLT revealed that 66 participants (81.8%) had EDS, as defined by a mean sleep latency (MSL) < 10 minutes, with only
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a first-line treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the adherence to CPAP can be difficult for patients due to several reasons. In this case report we describe a patient with severe OSA who initially was treated successfully with CPAP, but after a few months adherence problems developed because of macroglossia. This was caused by amyloidosis due to multiple myeloma. During treatment with chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation, the size of the patient’s tongue decreased and he could successfully use his CPAP device again. Citation:. van Loenhout L, van der Zeijden H. An unusual cause of CPAP intolerance. J Clin Sleep Med. 2019;15(10):1535–1537.
Study Objectives:. Reliable sleep staging is difficult to obtain from home sleep testing for diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), especially when it is self-applied. Hence, the current study aimed to develop a single frontal electroencephalography-based automatic sleep staging system (ASSS). Methods:. The ASSS system was developed on a clinical dataset, with a high percentage of participants with OSA. The F4-M1 signal extracted from 62 participants (62.9% having OSA) was used to build a four-stage classifier. Performance of the ASSS was tested in a holdout set of 58 patients (60.3% having OSA) with epoch-by-epoch and whole-night agreement for sleep staging compared with expert scoring of polysomnography. Results:. Mean all-stage percent.
Introduction:. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and systemic hypertension (SH) are common and interrelated diseases. It is estimated that approximately 75% of treatment-resistant hypertension cases have an underlying OSA. Exploration of the gut microbiome is a new advance in medicine that has been linked to many comorbid illnesses, including SH and OSA. Here, we will review the literature in SH and gut dysbiosis, OSA and gut dysbiosis, and whether gut dysbiosis is common in both conditions. Methods:. We reviewed the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, including PubMed and PubMed Central. We identified a total of 230 articles. The literature search was conducted using the phrase “obstructive sleep apnea and gut dysbiosis.” Onl.
Study Objectives:. Limited evidence exists on the cost-effectiveness of mandibular advancement device (MAD) compared to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Therefore, this study compares the clinical and cost-effectiveness of MAD therapy with CPAP therapy in moderate OSA. Methods:. In a multicentre randomized controlled trial, patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 15 to 30 events/h were randomized to either MAD or CPAP. Incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratios (ICER/ICUR, in terms of AHI reduction and quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs, based on the EuroQol Five-Dimension Quality of Life questionnaire]) were calculated after 12 months, all from a societal perspec.
Study Objectives:. Lead exposure has been linked to adverse cognitive outcomes among children, and sleep disturbances could potentially mediate these relationships. As a first step, whether childhood lead levels are linked to sleep disturbances must be ascertained. Prior studies of lead and sleep are scarce and rely on parent-reported sleep data. Methods:. The study population included 395 participants from the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants project, a group of sequentially enrolled birth cohorts from Mexico City. Blood lead levels measured from ages 1 to 4 years were used to calculate a cumulative measure of early childhood lead levels. Average sleep duration, sleep fragmentation, and movement index were assessed on.
Study Objectives:. The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that there is a temporal correlation between reflux episodes and respiratory events in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux and obstructive sleep apnea. Methods:. Adults with clinically diagnosed laryngopharyngeal reflux confirmed by two validated instruments (reflux symptom index ≥ 13 and reflux finding score ≥ 7) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) underwent full polysomnography with concomitant and synchronized multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH esophageal monitoring.
Study Objectives:. The modified jaw-thrust maneuver (MJTM) during drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is known to predict the treatment effect of mandibular advancement devices. However, its effect on the depth of sedation and potential to provoke arousal by awakening patients during the maneuver has not been studied so far. This study investigated the effect of the MJTM on the depth of sedation during DISE. Methods:. Forty patients on whom the MJTM was performed during DISE were included. The effect of the maneuver was evaluated at the levels of the velum, lateral wall of the oropharynx, base of the tongue, and epiglottis. Obstruction was defined as the collapse of the upper airway exceeding 75%, and improvement with the MJTM was defined as
Study Objectives:. To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) referred for polysomnography (PSG) and to look for predictors of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and severe OSA in these children. Methods:. This is a retrospective case series of children ages 2 to 18 years who underwent PSG between January 2009 and February 2015.
Study Objectives:. Although respiratory abnormalities occurring during wakefulness are well recognized in patients with Rett syndrome (RS), less has been reported regarding sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in this population. This study aims to characterize the presenting complaints, types and severity of SDB, and treatment modalities of patients with RS and sleep concerns. Methods:. Retrospective chart review of pediatric patients with RS referred to our academic tertiary care institution from January 2007 to July 2017. Results:. Thirteen patients were identified, 11 female (84.6%); mean age at polysomnography (PSG) was 10.3 years (standard deviation 4.94). Eleven were white (84.6%), 2 were black (15.4%). The most common presenting symptoms w.
Study Objectives:. Our objectives were to determine in an obese population (body mass index > 35 kg/m 2 ) the number of patients, after gastric bypass (GBP), who no longer met French Ministry of Health criteria for utilizing positive airway pressure (PAP), and the predictive factors of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) improvement. Methods:. Between June 2012 and August 2014 we diagnosed OSA in 129 incident patients requiring PAP therapy before GBP.
Study Objectives:. Currently, there are no universally accepted guidelines for diagnosis and management of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in infants. The purpose of this study was to survey pediatric sleep medicine providers regarding their current practice patterns for diagnosis and management of SDB in infants. Methods:. An anonymous, web-based survey with 71 questions was distributed via the PEDSLEEP and Ped-Lung listserv, which serve as a hub of communication for pediatric sleep and pulmonary medicine providers worldwide. Results:. Fifty-four providers from eight countries completed the survey. Ninety-six percent of providers reported performing sleep studies in infants with 53% performing more than 30 studies per year. There was no cons.

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