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PhysOrg.com 05/28/2020 11:48
Spatial and temporal differentiations are important features in the study of phenology of ecosystems. Plant phenology studies the lifecycle phases in plants driven by environmental factors, and the study of its long-term patterns and dynamics is important to reveal the responses of vegetation in different regions of China to global changes.
PhysOrg.com 05/28/2020 09:40
Eukaryotic cells within living tissues can affect important physiological processes such as apoptosis and cell migration based on dynamic pattern formation with spatially varying orientations. However, it is yet challenging to project a predesigned map of orientational order onto a growing tissue in the lab. In a new study now published on Science Advances, Taras Turiv and a research team in chemical physics, advanced materials and biomedical sciences at the Kent State University, Ohio, U.S., detailed a new approach to produce cell monolayers of human dermal fibroblasts. They predesigned the orientation patterns and topological defects using a photoaligned liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) that swelled anisotropically in an aqueous medium. The.
PhysOrg.com 05/28/2020 09:15
A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Japan has developed a better way to split water molecules to produce hydrogen using sunlight. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes their technique and how well it worked. Simone Pokrant with Inscripta, Inc. has published a News and Views piece outlining the problems that scientists have faced in trying to use sunlight for electrolysis and also details the work by the team in the same journal issue.
PhysOrg.com 05/27/2020 11:40
A group of scientists from NUST MISIS developed a ceramic material with the highest melting point among currently known compounds. Due to the unique combination of physical, mechanical and thermal properties, the material is promising for use in the most heat-loaded components of aircraft, such as nose fairings, jet engines and sharp front edges of wings operating at temperatures above 2000 degrees C. The results are published in Ceramics International.
PhysOrg.com 05/27/2020 11:38
In the past decade, there has been renewed thinking about human missions to the moon and perhaps even to Mars. Inevitably, terrestrial microorganisms on the bodies of astronauts, spaceships or equipment will come into contact with extraterrestrial environments. Researchers from the Radboudumc describe in an article in Astrobiology that bacteria can survive on an "extraterrestrial diet," which affected their pathogenic potential.
PhysOrg.com 05/27/2020 11:36
3-D micro-/nanofabrication holds the key to building a large variety of micro-/nanoscale materials, structures, devices, and systems with unique properties that do not manifest in their 2-D planar counterparts. Recently, scientists have explored some very different 3-D fabrication strategies such as kirigami and origami that make use of the science of cutting and folding 2-D materials/structures to create versatile 3-D shapes. Such new methodologies enable continuous and direct 2-D-to-3-D transformations through folding, bending and twisting, with which the occupied space can vary "nonlinearly" by several orders of magnitude compared to the conventional 3-D fabrications. More importantly, these new-concept kirigami/origami techniques provid.
PhysOrg.com 05/27/2020 11:35
When a new virus emerges, biologists rush to reconstruct its genome—a prerequisite for future diagnostic and vaccine development. The challenge with viral sequencing during an outbreak is that a sample from a patient, like saliva from a COVID-19 patient that was used for the very first SARS-COV-2 coronavirus sequencing effort, contains genomes of many other, often harmless, viruses. Not to mention hundreds of much larger bacterial genomes that live in our mouth and make it difficult to find the viral sequences among them.
PhysOrg.com 05/27/2020 11:33
The current crisis with its unique dynamics has been a far more catastrophic event that has created a nearly complete shutdown of the world's travel industry. Its impact on aviation has been much more severe than previous crises. Airlines came up with unusual ultra long-haul (ULH) repatriation flights worldwide. In other words, the pandemic has provided a testing ground for airlines to test the operational performance/capabilities of possible future routes.
PhysOrg.com 05/27/2020 11:32
How does hydrogen form blisters in ruthenium mirrors for extreme UV (EUV) lithography machines? An M2i research project by Chidozie Onwudinanti and colleagues at DIFFER, Eindhoven University of Technology and University of Twente explains the blistering process: a layer of tin contamination acts as a valve that lets hydrogen into the underlying ruthenium, but blocks it from leaving again, writes the team in the journal Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics.

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