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Background:. Colorectal cancer incidence among young adults in the United States is on the rise, but whether this phenomenon is present in other parts of the world is not well documented. This study aims to explore the temporal change of incidence rates for colorectal cancer in various countries across the globe. Methods:. We extracted colorectal cancer incidence and population data from 1988 to 2007 based on data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer and compared incidence between age groups. Twelve representative jurisdictions from five continents were selected. Young-onset colorectal cancer cases were defined as those ages <50 years. Joinpoint regression was used to measure the trends of colorectal cancer incidence and to es.
Background:. Epidemiologic data addressing clinical relevance of viral load fluctuation of oncogenic types other than human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are limited. Methods:. A type-stratified set of infections by non-HPV16/18 oncogenic types that were detected at ≥2 visits was randomly selected from women who were enrolled in a clinical trial and followed every 6 months for 2 years for detection of HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 (CIN2/3).
Background:. Laboratory and epidemiologic research suggests a protective role of magnesium in colorectal cancer development. We estimated the associations of serum and dietary magnesium with colorectal cancer incidence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Methods:. Serum magnesium concentration was measured in blood collected twice (1987–1989 and 1990–1992) and averaged. Dietary magnesium was assessed by food-frequency questionnaire administered twice (1987–1989 and 1993–1995) and averaged. For both dietary and serum magnesium, the averaged measures were categorized into quintiles for analysis. Analyses included 315 colorectal cancer cases among 13,009 participants for serum magnesium (followed for a median of 20.4 years),
Background:. Higher levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with longer survival in several cancers, but the results have differed across cancer sites. The association between serum 25(OH)D levels and overall survival (OS) time in esophageal adenocarcinoma remains unclear. Methods:. We utilized serum samples from 476 patients with primary esophageal adenocarcinoma, recruited from Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA) between 1999 and 2015. We used log-rank tests to test the difference in survival curves across quartiles of 25(OH)D levels and extended Cox modeling to estimate adjusted HRs. We tested for interactions between clinical stage or BMI on the association between 25(OH)D and OS. We additionally perform.
Background:. Detailed prospective evaluation of cigarette smoking associated with pancreatic cancer risk in large Asian populations is limited. The aim of this study was to examine this association in a Japanese population, with a particular focus on evaluating sex differences. Methods:. We performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. We calculated study-specific HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then estimated summary HRs by pooling these estimates with a random effects model. Results:. During 4,695,593 person-years of follow-up in 354,154 participants, 1,779 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified. We observed an increased pancreatic cancer risk for current smo.
Background:. Allergies and asthma, conditions commonly characterized by immunoglobulin E–mediated atopic reactions, may decrease cancer risk via increases in immunosurveillance, but may increase risk due to persistent immune stimulation. Associations between allergies and asthma and cancer risk remain unclear, and it is unknown whether associations vary by race/ethnicity. Methods:. We evaluated these associations in the Southern Community Cohort Study. At baseline (2002–2009), 64,170 participants were queried on history of allergies and asthma; participants were followed through 2011, during which time 3,628 incident, invasive cancers were identified, including 667 lung cancers, 539 breast cancers, and 529 prostate cancers. Cox proportional h.
Background:. Breast cancer is a major cause of death in occidental women. The role of metabolism in breast cancer etiology remains unclear. Metabolomics may help to elucidate novel biological pathways and identify new biomarkers to predict breast cancer long before symptoms appear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether untargeted metabolomic signatures from blood draws of healthy women could contribute to better understand and predict the long-term risk of developing breast cancer. Methods:. A nested case–control study was conducted within the SU.VI.MAX prospective cohort (13 years of follow-up) to analyze baseline plasma samples of 211 incident breast cancer cases and 211 matched controls by LC/MS. Multivariable conditional logist.
Background:. Pathogenic variants in susceptibility genes lead to increased breast cancer risk. Methods:. To identify coding variants associated with breast cancer risk, we conducted whole-exome sequencing in genomic DNA samples from 831 breast cancer cases and 839 controls of Chinese women.
Background:. Military personnel may have potential exposures to carcinogens during their military careers. However, the generalizability of causal evidence between occupational exposures and cancer outcomes in military personnel is limited. This study aims to describe the epidemiology cause–specific cancer mortality in still serving and released Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel recruited between 1976 and 2012. Methods:. Data came from the Canadian Forces Cancer and Mortality Study II (CF CAMS II), a record-linkage study of approximately 228,685 CAF Regular Force personnel and Reservists. Sex-stratified standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for each neoplasm subcategory, with the Canadian general population (CGP) as the refe.
Background:. Precision interventions using biological data may enhance smoking treatment, yet are understudied among smokers who are disproportionately burdened by smoking-related disease. Methods:. We surveyed smokers in the NCI-sponsored Southern Community Cohort Study, consisting primarily of African-American, low-income adults.
Background:. Racial disparities in guideline-based, appropriate treatment (ApT) may be a significant driving force for differences in survival for people with nonmetastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We hypothesize that receipt of ApT is influenced by factors such as race and socioeconomic status, irrespective of neighborhood-level differences in healthcare, variations in practice patterns, and clinical characteristics of patients with nonmetastatic MIBC. Methods:. Within the National Cancer Database, we identified individuals diagnosed with MIBC between 2004 and 2013. Multivariable logistic regression and mixed effects modelling was used to examine predictors of ApT, clustered within institutions. Results:. A total of 51,350 indiv.
Background:. Population-based screening programs are credited with earlier colorectal cancer diagnoses and treatment initiation, which reduce mortality rates and improve patient health outcomes. However, recommended screening methods are unsatisfactory as they are invasive, are resource intensive, suffer from low uptake, or have poor diagnostic performance. Our goal was to identify a urine metabolomic-based biomarker panel for the detection of colorectal cancer that has the potential for global population-based screening. Methods:. Prospective urine samples were collected from study participants. Based upon colonoscopy and histopathology results, 342 participants (colorectal cancer, 171; healthy controls, 171) from two study sites (Canada, Un.
Background:. In absence of definitive molecular risk markers, clinical management of patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remains largely guided by patient and tumor characteristics. In this study, we analyzed recent trends in DCIS incidence and compared them against trends in mammography use. Methods:. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry was queried for patients diagnosed with DCIS from 2000 to 2014 (18 registries). Joinpoint regression analyses were used to compute age- and race-stratified trends in age-adjusted incidence of DCIS. The patterns of DCIS incidence were compared against mammography utilization data from the National Health Interview Survey. Results:. Between 2000 and 2014, overall DCIS inc.
Background:. Mammographic breast density declines during menopause. We assessed changes in volumetric breast density across the menopausal transition and factors that influence these changes. Methods:. Women without a history of breast cancer, who had full field digital mammograms during both pre- and postmenopausal periods, at least 2 years apart, were sampled from four facilities within the San Francisco Mammography Registry from 2007 to 2013. Dense breast volume (DV) was assessed using Volpara on mammograms across the time period. Annualized change in DV from pre- to postmenopause was estimated using linear mixed models adjusted for covariates and per-woman random effects. Multiplicative interactions were evaluated between premenopausal ri.
Background:. To evaluate the association of liver fibrosis scores with PSA level among U.S. adult men overall and by race/ethnicity. Methods:. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001–2010, were used. Males ages ≥40 years without a prostate cancer diagnosis and who had serum PSA, liver enzymes, albumin, and platelet counts measured as part of NHANES protocol were included. Liver fibrosis was measured using three scores: aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis 4 index (FIB-4), and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS). We assessed overall and race/ethnicity-stratified geometric mean PSA by fibrosis score using predictive margins by linear regression, and the association of abnormal fibrosis.
Background:. Hispanics are the largest minority population in the United States (18%). They represent a heterogeneous and growing population. Cancer is the leading cause of death among Hispanics, yet few studies have described cancer mortality burden by specific Hispanic group nationwide. Methods:. Cancer-related deaths from U.S. death certificates for the years 2003–2012 were analyzed for decedents identifying as Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Central or South American. We calculated descriptive statistics, including potential years of lives lost (PYLL), age-adjusted rates, standardized mortality ratios, and fitted JoinPoint regression models, to evaluate annual trends by Hispanic group, using non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) as the reference po.
Endometrial cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries, has a heritable component. To date, 16 genetic risk regions have been robustly discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of endometrial cancer. Post-GWAS analyses including expression quantitative trait loci analysis and laboratory-based functional studies have been successful in identifying genes and pathways involved in endometrial carcinogenesis. Mendelian randomization analysis studies have confirmed factors causal for endometrial cancer risk, including increased body mass index and early onset of menarche. In this review, we summarize findings from GWAS and post-GWAS analyses of endometrial cancer. We discuss clini.
Background:. Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for approximately 15% of invasive breast carcinomas and is commonly associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Both have been shown to have higher familial risks than the more common ductal cancers. However, there are little data on the prevalence of the known high and moderate penetrance breast cancer predisposition genes in ILC. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of germline variants in CDH1, BRCA2, BRCA1, CHEK2, PALB2 , and TP53 in sporadic ILC and LCIS diagnosed in women ages ≤60 years. Methods:. Access Array technology (Fluidigm) was used to amplify all exons of CDH1, BRCA2, BRCA1, TP53, CHEK2 , and PALB2 using a custom-made targeted sequencing panel in 1,43.
Background:. Previous studies associated night-shift work with melatonin disruption, with mixed evidence regarding the modulating effects of chronotype (i.e., diurnal preference). Methods:. One hundred and thirty active nurses (84 rotating-shift and 46 day-shift workers) in the Nurses' Health Study II wore a head-mounted light meter and collected spontaneous urine voids over 3 days.

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