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Underutilization of effective screening is one driver of disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Consideration of patient preferences could help to improve screening rates in populations facing substantial barriers to preventive care. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on cervical cancer screening preferences among medically underserved patients in the United States. We searched six electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) for articles published through February 2019 (Prospero ID: CRD42019125431). Among the 43 articles included, 23 reported screening modality preferences, 11 reported preferences related to provider demographics and attributes, six reported screening
Background:. Cotinine is the most widely used biomarker of tobacco exposure. At similar smoking levels, African Americans have higher serum cotinine than Whites. UGT2B10-catalyzed cotinine glucuronidation impacts these levels, and African Americans often have low UGT2B10 activity due to a high prevalence of a UGT2B10 splice variant (rs2942857). Methods:. Two UGT2B10 SNPs (rs6175900 and rs2942857) were genotyped in 289 African Americans and 627 White smokers. Each smoker was assigned a genetic score of 0, 1, or 2 based on the number of variant alleles. Total nicotine equivalents (TNE), the sum of nicotine and six metabolites, and serum cotinine and 3'-hydroxycotinine were quantified. The contribution of UGT2B10 genetic score to cotinine concen.
Background:. Hyperinsulinemia is considered to be important in the development of colon cancer, but few studies have investigated the associations of hyperinsulinemia with colon cancer survival via dietary scores. Methods:. Empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) was derived to assess the insulinemic potential of daily diets reflecting the long-term insulin exposure, with higher (more positive) scores indicating higher insulinemic diets.
Background:. Experimental evidence suggests that dietary intakes of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids have divergent effects on melanoma growth, but epidemiologic evidence on their combined effect is lacking. Methods:. In 634 Australian patients with primary melanoma, we assessed prediagnosis consumption of 39 food groups by food frequency questionnaires completed within 2 months of diagnosis.
The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in cancer research has accelerated the discovery of somatic mutations; however, progress in the identification of germline variation associated with cancer risk is less clear. We conducted a systematic literature review of cancer genetic susceptibility studies that used NGS technologies at an exome/genome-wide scale to obtain a fuller understanding of the research landscape to date and to inform future studies. The variability across studies on methodologies and reporting was considerable. Most studies sequenced few high-risk (mainly European) families, used a candidate analysis approach, and identified potential cancer-related germline variants or genes in a small fraction of.
Background:. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling is important in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) biology, but little is known regarding IGF1R expression and patient characteristics and outcomes. Methods:. In 365 patients with resected PDAC, we evaluated IGF1R protein expression using IHC on whole-slide sections and IGF1R genomic status using next-generation sequencing.
Background:. Proportion of time covered (PTC, or "covered time") is a longitudinal measure of adherence to preventive health services, the use of which has increased in recent years. This measure is helpful for evaluating the success of delivering screening interventions over time. However, there are challenges and nuances in computing and interpreting PTC. Methods:. In this manuscript, we describe some desired properties of PTC measures, challenges in achieving those, and potential solutions using hypothetical examples. Results:. We propose a modified PTC measure (mPTC) to complement the standard, existing PTC measure. The mPTC measure focuses on screening completion rather than initiation when a screening modality requires more than one step.
Background:. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a systemic inflammatory state. Low physical activity (PA) could modify this patho-physiology or act as an independent contributor to inflammation. Previous studies of both conditions have identified altered levels of inflammation- and immune-related proteins based on limited sets of candidate markers. Methods:. We investigated associations of MetS and low PA with circulating inflammation markers in a stratified random sample of Japanese adults ( N = 774, mean age 60.7 years) within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC) Cohort II. AHA/NHLBI criteria were used to define MetS (19%) and the bottom quartile of PA was considered low. 110 circulating biomarkers, including cytokines, c.
Background:. Approximately 85% of the U.S. military active duty population is male and less than 50 years of age, with elevated levels of known risk factors for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), including smoking, excessive use of alcohol, and greater numbers of sexual partners, and elevated prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV).
Background:. IFN is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays critical immunomodulatory roles in intercellular communication in innate and adaptive immune responses. Despite recognition of IFN signaling effects on host defense against viral infection and its utility in immunotherapy and tumor progression, the roles of genetic variants of the IFN signaling pathway genes in survival of patients with cancer remain unknown. Methods:. We used a discovery genotyping dataset from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial ( n = 1,185) and a replication genotyping dataset from the Harvard Lung Cancer Susceptibility Study ( n = 984) to evaluate associations between 14,553 genetic variants in 150 IFN pathway genes and survival of non–sma.
Background:. Emerging colorectal cancer trends demonstrate increased incidence and mortality in younger populations, prompting consideration of average-risk colorectal cancer screening initiation at age 45 versus 50 years. However, screening test performance characteristics in adults 45–49 years have been minimally described. To inform the biologic rationale for multi-target stool DNA (mt-sDNA) screening in younger patients, we analyzed and compared tissue levels of methylation ( BMP3, NDRG4 ) and mutation ( KRAS ) markers included in the FDA-approved, mt-sDNA assay (Cologuard; Exact Sciences Corporation). Methods:. Within 40–44, 45–49, and 50–64 year age groups, archived colorectal tissue specimens were identified for 211 sporadic colorectal.
Background:. Risk factors for prostate cancer are not well understood. Red blood cell, platelet, and white blood cell indices may be markers of a range of exposures that might be related to prostate cancer risk. Therefore, we examined the associations of hematologic parameters with prostate cancer risk. Methods:. Complete blood count data from 209,686 male UK Biobank participants who were free from cancer at study baseline were analyzed. Participants were followed up via data linkage. After a mean follow-up of 6.8 years, 5,723 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 323 men died from prostate cancer. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for prostate cancer incidence and
Cancer mortality rates are approximately 8% higher in rural populations and mortality rates are falling more slowly in rural communities, resulting in widening rural-urban health disparities in the United States. The NCI has a long history of supporting health disparities research, including research to understand the health needs, strengths, and opportunities in rural communities. However, the portfolio analysis described in this article underscores the need to significantly accelerate rural cancer control research in partnership with state and local communities. This commentary outlines NCI's efforts over the last four years to address gaps in rural cancer control research and improve cancer prevention, control, and care delivery in rural.
Background:. Urothelial carcinoma is the predominant (95%) bladder cancer subtype in industrialized nations. Animal and epidemiologic human studies suggest that hormonal factors may influence urothelial carcinoma risk. Methods:. We used an analytic cohort of 333,919 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort. Associations between hormonal factors and incident urothelial carcinoma (overall and by tumor grade, tumor aggressiveness, and non–muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma) risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results:. During a mean of 15 years of follow-up, 529 women developed urothelial carcinoma. In a model including number of full-term pregnancies (FTP), menopausal status, and.
Background:. Pancreatic cancer is projected to become the second most common cause of cancer-related death over the next 5 years. Because inflammation is thought to be a common trajectory for disease initiation, we sought to prospectively characterize immune profiles using DNA methylation markers and examine DNA methylation levels previously linked to inflammation biomarkers to evaluate whether these immune markers play a key role in pancreatic cancer. Methods:. In a nested case–control study pooling three U.S. prospective cohort studies, DNA methylation was measured in prediagnostic leukocytes of incident pancreatic cancer cases and matched controls using the Illumina MethylationEPIC array. Differentially methylated regions were used to pred.
Background:. Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, in part, because one third of Americans fail to get screened. In a prior randomized controlled trial, we found that an iPad patient decision aid called Mobile Patient Technology for Health-CRC (mPATH-CRC) doubled the proportion of patients who completed colorectal cancer screening. Methods:. All data for the current analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial to determine the impact of mPATH-CRC on receipt of colorectal cancer screening within 24 weeks. Participants were enrolled from six community-based primary care practices between June 2014 and May 2016 and randomized to either usual care or mPATH-CRC. Six potentia.
Background:. Adult survivors of childhood osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are at risk of developing therapy-related chronic health conditions. We characterized the cumulative burden of chronic conditions and health status of survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. Methods:. Survivors ( n = 207) treated between 1964 and 2002 underwent comprehensive clinical assessments (history/physical examination, laboratory analysis, and physical and neurocognitive testing) and were compared with community controls ( n = 272). Health conditions were defined and graded according to a modified version of the NCI's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events and the cumulative burden estimated. Results:. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma survivors [median age 13.6.
Background:. Few studies have examined prostate cancer incidence and aggressiveness in urban-rural Appalachian populations. We examined these rates in urban-rural Appalachia and non-Appalachia Pennsylvania (PA), and the association between these areas and more aggressive prostate cancer at diagnosis. Methods:. Men, ages ≥ 40 years with a primary prostate cancer diagnosis, were identified from the 2004–2014 Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Age-adjusted incidence rates for prostate cancer and more aggressive prostate cancer at diagnosis were calculated by urban-rural Appalachia status. Multivariable Poisson regressions were conducted. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the association between the geographic areas and more aggressiv.
Background:. While Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is the major cause of gastric cancer, it has also been suggested to be involved in colorectal cancer development. However, prospective studies addressing H. pylori and colorectal cancer are sparse and inconclusive. We assessed the association of antibody responses to H. pylori proteins with colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Methods:. We applied H. pylori multiplex serology to measure antibody responses to 13 H. pylori proteins in prediagnostic serum samples from 485 colorectal cancer cases and 485 matched controls nested within the EPIC study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivari.

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