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European Respiratory Journal 10/22/2020 03:15
The persisting worldwide burden of tuberculosis (TB) is worrisome. In 2018, an estimated 10 million individuals developed TB and 1.45 million infected individuals died [1]. The increase in drug resistance is an important point of concern. Resistance can be acquired by inappropriate drug management, noncompliance and insufficient drug exposure [2, 3]. The last is frequently described for the first-line TB drugs rifampicin and isoniazid due to large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability [3]. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can be used to verify drug exposure and adjust individual drug dosages if needed [4].
European Respiratory Journal 09/24/2020 04:16
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases. In 2018, 1.5 million people died due to TB [1]. Early diagnosis of TB is key in achieving WHO End TB targets, and molecular diagnostic tests have been developed. However, molecular tests cannot differentiate between viable and non-viable bacteria [2, 3], leading to challenges in the interpretation of positive test results in patients with recent TB.
European Respiratory Journal 08/06/2020 12:29
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR-TB) Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Mtbc) isolates challenges tuberculosis (TB) control worldwide [1] and requires the rapid determination of extensive resistance profiles [2], enabling prompt initiation of effective treatment regimens.
European Respiratory Journal 08/06/2020 04:11
Introduction. The effectiveness of video-observed therapy (VOT) for treating tuberculosis (TB) has not been measured in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where >95% of TB cases and deaths occur. In this study, we analyse the effectiveness and patient cost-difference of VOT compared to clinic-based directly observed therapy (DOT) in improving medication adherence in Moldova, a LMIC in Eastern Europe. Methods. The study was a two-arm individually randomised trial with 197 TB patients (n=99 DOT control group; n=98 VOT treatment group; multidrug-resistant TB cases were excluded). The primary outcome was observed medication adherence, measured by the number of days that a patient failed to be observed adhering to medication for every 2-wee.

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