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European Respiratory Journal 06/27/2019 03:05
We read with interest the recent correspondence from Chen et al. [1] regarding the burden of notified tuberculosis (TB) among adolescents and young adults in Taiwan. The authors report that 10–24 year olds constituted only 5.2% of all newly diagnosed TB patients in Taiwan from 2005 to 2016, and that this percentage declined from around 6% in 2005 to around 4% in 2016. They contrast these figures with our estimate that young people constituted 17% of all people developing incident TB globally in 2012 [2]. There are several factors that explain this apparently large discrepancy.
European Respiratory Journal 06/27/2019 03:05
Much remains unknown about Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission. Seminal experimental studies from the 1950s demonstrated that airborne expulsion of droplet nuclei from an infectious tuberculosis (TB) patient is the primary route of transmission. However, these findings did not rule out other routes of M. tuberculos is transmission. We reviewed historical scientific evidence from the late 19th/early 20th century and contemporary studies investigating the presence, persistence and infectiousness of environmental M. tuberculosis . We found both experimental and epidemiological evidence supporting the presence and viability of M. tuberculosis in multiple natural and built environments for months to years, presumably following contamination
European Respiratory Journal 05/30/2019 03:30
Tuberculosis (TB), the disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Current tools to identify Mtb-infected individuals, specifically interferon- release assays (IGRAs) and the tuberculin skin test (TST), cannot distinguish between asymptomatic Mtb-infected individuals (latent Mtb infection (LTBI)) and those with TB [1]. Advancement of TB diagnostics and their application in TB-endemic settings requires an assay that distinguishes between individuals with LTBI and TB. In this pilot study, we compared the ability of three CD8 + T-cell-based assays to distinguish Ugandan adults with: confirmed pulmonary TB (HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected), LTBI (HIV-uninfected only), and those who are.

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