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Biochemical Journal 09/19/2019 06:42
The mechanism of generation of factor VIIa, considered the initiating protease in the tissue factor-initiated extrinsic limb of blood coagulation, is obscure. Decreased levels of plasma VIIa in individuals with congenital factor IX deficiency suggest that generation of VIIa is dependent on an activation product of factor IX. Factor VIIa activates IX to IXa by a two-step removal of the activation peptide with cleavages occurring after R191 and R226. Factor IXaα, however, is IX cleaved only after R226, and not after R191. We tested the hypothesis that IXaα activates VII with mutant IX that could be cleaved only at R226 and thus generate only IXaα upon activation. Factor IXaα demonstrated 1.6% the coagulant activity of IXa in a contact activat.
Biochemical Journal 09/17/2019 06:41
Elevated serum homocysteine, an intermediate of cellular one-carbon metabolism, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Folate deficiency increases serum homocysteine and may contribute to CVD progression. Vascular smooth muscle cells regulate vascular contractility, but also contribute to repair processes in response to vascular injury. Nutritional deficiencies, like folate deficiency, are thought to impact on this phenotypic plasticity, possibly by epigenetic mechanisms. We have investigated the effect of folate deficiency on vascular smooth muscle cells in two cell culture systems representing early and late stages of smooth muscle cells differentiation. We find that folate deficiency promotes differentiation towa.
Biochemical Journal 09/17/2019 06:41
Detection and degradation of foreign nucleic acids is an ancient form of host defense. However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely clear. MCPIP1 is an endoribonuclease and an important regulator in both innate and adaptive immunity by targeting inflammatory mRNA degradation. Here we report that MCPIP1 RNase can also selectively detect and degrade the mRNAs encoded by transfected plasmids. In transient transfection, MCPIP1 expression potently degraded the mRNA from exogenously transfected vectors, which is independent on the vector, genes and cell types used. Conversely, the expression of transfected plasmids in MCPIP1-null cells is significantly higher than that in wild-type cells. Interestingly, overexpression of MCPIP1 or MCPIP1.
Biochemical Journal 09/17/2019 06:41
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) that regulates activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)- and p38-stress response pathways leading to apoptosis in nucleated cells. We have previously shown that ASK1 is expressed in platelets and regulates agonist-induced platelet activation and thrombosis. However, the mechanism by which platelet agonists cause activation of ASK1 is unknown. Here, we show that in platelets agonist-induced activation of p38 is exclusively dependent on ASK1. Both thrombin and collagen­ were able to activate ASK1/p38. Activation of ASK1/p38 was strongly dependent on thromboxane A 2 (TxA 2 ) and ADP. Agonist-induced ASK1 activation is blocked by inhi.
Biochemical Journal 09/16/2019 09:06
Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative bacterium which causes Q fever, a complex and life-threatening infection with both acute and chronic presentations. C. burnetii invades a variety of host cell types and replicates within a unique vacuole derived from the host cell lysosome. In order to understand how C. burnetii survives within this intracellular niche, we have investigated the carbon metabolism of both intracellular and axenically cultivated bacteria. Both bacterial populations were shown to assimilate exogenous [ 13 C]glucose or [ 13 C]glutamate, with concomitant labeling of intermediates in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, and in the TCA cycle. Significantly, the two populations displayed metabolic pathway profiles reflective of the nu.
Biochemical Journal 09/16/2019 09:06
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and orally bioavailable, brain penetrant and highly potent LRRK2 kinase inhibitors are in early stages of clinical testing. Detection of LRRK2 phosphorylation, as well as phosphorylation of Rab10, a LRRK2 kinase substrate, have been proposed as target engagement biomarkers for LRRK2 inhibitor clinical trials. However, these readouts do not seem able to stratify patients based on enhanced LRRK2 kinase activity. Here, we describe a robust cell biological assay based on centrosomal cohesion alterations which were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with G2019S LRRK2 mutations as comp.
Biochemical Journal 09/13/2019 06:38
Control of fatty acid storage and release in adipose tissue is fundamental in energy homeostasis and the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We here take the whole signalling network into account to identify how insulin and β-adrenergic stimulation in concert controls lipolysis in mature subcutaneous adipocytes obtained from non-diabetic and, in parallel, type 2 diabetic women. We report that, and show how, the anti-lipolytic effect of insulin can be fully explained by protein kinase B (PKB/Akt)-dependent activation of the phosphodiesterase PDE3B. Through the same PKB-dependent pathway β-adrenergic receptor signalling, via cAMP and PI3Kα, is anti-lipolytic and inhibits its own stimulation of lipolysis by 50%. Through this pathway bo.
Biochemical Journal 09/10/2019 06:44
Human zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a 42 kDa adipokine which regulates body fat mass and is associated with cachexia and obesity. ZAG belongs to the major histocompatibility complex class I protein family and binds long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in its groove formed from the α1 and α2 domains. To identify the molecular basis of its lipid-binding function, we determined the first crystal structure at 2.49Å resolution for fatty acid-bound ZAG, where the ligand was the fluorescent 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA). The 192 kDa crystallographic asymmetric unit contained six ZAG and eight fatty acid molecules in unique conformations. Six fatty acid molecules were localised to the ZAG grooves, where its tails were bound in two disti.
Biochemical Journal 09/06/2019 07:15
Nur77 is a transcription factor belonging to the NR4A subfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. Upon induction, Nur77 modulates expression of its target genes and controls a variety of biological and pathophysiological processes. Prior research that revealed a structurally atypical ligand-binding domain and failed to locate an endogenous ligand had led to classification of Nur77 as an orphan receptor. However, several more recent studies indicate that small synthetic molecules and unsaturated fatty acids can bind to Nur77. Discovery of additional endogenous ligands will facilitate our understanding of the receptor's functions and regulatory mechanisms. Our data have identified prostaglandin A 2 (PGA 2 ), a cyclopentenone prostaglandin, as suc.
Biochemical Journal 09/06/2019 07:15
Autotransporters, or type 5 secretion systems, are widespread surface proteins of Gram-negative bacteria often associated with virulence functions. Autotransporters consist of an outer membrane β-barrel domain and an exported passenger. In the poorly studied type 5d subclass, the passenger is a patatin-like lipase. The prototype of this secretion pathway is PlpD of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , an opportunistic human pathogen. The PlpD passenger is a homodimer with phospholipase A1 (PLA1) activity. Based on sequencing data, PlpD-like proteins are present in many bacterial species. We characterized the enzymatic activity, specific lipid binding and oligomeric status of PlpD homologs from Aeromonas hydrophila (a fish pathogen), Burkholderia pseudo.
Biochemical Journal 09/05/2019 06:27
CoaBC, part of the vital coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway in bacteria, has recently been validated as a promising antimicrobial target. In this work, we employed native ion mobility-mass spectrometry to gain structural insights into the phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase domain of E. coli CoaBC. Moreover, native mass spectrometry was validated as a screening tool to identify novel inhibitors of this enzyme, highlighting the utility and versatility of this technique both for structural biology and for drug discovery.
Biochemical Journal 09/05/2019 06:27
Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a cytokine that regulates a number of important immune and inflammatory pathways. We used the ability of IL6 to inhibit the clonal proliferation of the mouse M1 myeloid leukemia cell line in agar to positively screen a cDNA expression library for proteins that inhibited IL6 activity. We found three clones completely resistant to IL6 that contained the cDNA for the Membrane-Associated RING-CH E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH2. MARCH2 is a member of a family of membrane bound E3 ubiquitin ligases that target cell-surface receptors for degradation. MARCH2 overexpressing M1 clones retained responsiveness to the related cytokines leukemia inhibitory factor and oncostatin M and we showed that its inhibitory effect was a result of
Biochemical Journal 09/04/2019 06:39
All land plants contain at least one class II diterpene cyclase (DTC), which utilize an acid-base catalytic mechanism, for the requisite production of ent -copalyl diphosphate ( ent -CPP) in gibberellin A (GA) phytohormone biosynthesis. These ent -CPP synthases (CPSs) are hypothesized to be derived from ancient bacterial origins and, in turn, to have given rise to the frequently observed additional DTCs utilized in more specialized plant metabolism. However, such gene duplication and neo-functionalization has occurred repeatedly, reducing the utility of phylogenetic analyses. Support for evolutionary scenarios can be found in more specific conservation of key enzymatic features. While DTCs generally utilize a DxDD motif as the catalytic aci.
Biochemical Journal 09/02/2019 07:02
Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are removed through multistep processes termed ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Valosin-containing protein (VCP) plays a crucial role in ERAD as the interaction of ubiquitin fusion degradation protein 1 (Ufd1) with VCP via its SHP box motif ( 228 F-S-G-S-G-N-R-L 235 ) is required for ERAD. However, the mechanisms by which the VCP-Ufd1 interaction is regulated are not well understood. Here, we found that the serine 229 residue located in the Ufd1 SHP box is phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), with this process being enhanced by either forskolin (an adenylyl cyclase activator) or calyculin A (a protein phosphatase inhibito.
Biochemical Journal 08/30/2019 09:19
Squalene monooxygenase (SM) is an essential rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. SM degradation is accelerated by excess cholesterol, and this requires the first 100 amino acids of SM (SM N100). This process is part of a protein quality control pathway called endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). In ERAD, SM is ubiquitinated by MARCH6, an E3 ubiquitin ligase located in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, several details of the ERAD process for SM remain elusive, such as the extraction mechanism from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Here, we used SM N100 fused to GFP (SM N100-GFP) as a model degron to investigate the extraction process of SM in ERAD. We showed that valosin-containing protein (VCP) is important for.
Biochemical Journal 08/30/2019 09:19
Rubisco activase (Rca) is a catalytic chaperone that remodels the active site, promotes the release of inhibitors and restores catalytic competence to Rubisco. Rca activity and its consequent effect on Rubisco activation and photosynthesis are modulated by changes to the chloroplast environment induced by fluctuations in light levels that reach the leaf, including redox status and ADP/ATP ratio. The Triticum aestivum (wheat) genome encodes for three Rca protein isoforms: 1β (42.7 kDa), 2β (42.2 kDa) and 2α (46.0 kDa). The regulatory properties of these isoforms were characterised by measuring rates of Rubisco activation and ATP hydrolysis by purified recombinant Rca proteins in presence of physiological ADP/ATP ratios. ATP hydrolysis by all.
Biochemical Journal 08/29/2019 06:39
The only known function of S -adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is to supply, with its partner aminopropyltransferase enzymes such as spermidine synthase (SpdSyn), the aminopropyl donor for polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamine spermidine is probably essential for growth of all eukaryotes, most archaea and many bacteria. Two classes of AdoMetDC exist, the prokaryotic class 1a and 1b forms, and the eukaryotic class 2 enzyme, which is derived from an ancient fusion of two prokaryotic class 1b genes. Herein, we show that "eukaryotic" class 2 AdoMetDCs are found in bacteria and are enzymatically functional. However, the bacterial AdoMetDC class 2 genes are phylogenetically limited and were likely acquired from a eukaryotic source via tran.
Biochemical Journal 08/27/2019 06:35
Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) synthase (Tps1) catalyses the formation of T6P from UDP-glucose (UDPG) (or GDPG, etc.) and glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), and structural basis of this process has not been well studied. MoTps1 ( Magnaporthe oryzae Tps1) plays critical role in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, but its structural information is unknown. Here we present the crystal structures of MoTps1 apo, binary (with UDPG) and ternary (with UDPG/G6P or UDP/T6P) complexes. MoTps1 consists of two modified Rossmann-fold domains and a catalytic center in-between. Unlike Escherichia coli OtsA (EcOtsA, the Tps1 of E. coli ), MoTps1 exists as a mixture of monomer, dimer, and oligomer in solution. Inter-chain salt bridges, which are not fully conserved in EcOt.
Biochemical Journal 08/20/2019 07:37
RhoBTB1 is an atypical Rho GTPase with two BTB domains in addition to its Rho domain. Although most Rho GTPases regulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics, RhoBTB1 is not known to affect cell shape or motility. We report that RhoBTB1 depletion increases prostate cancer cell invasion and induces elongation in Matrigel, a phenotype similar to that induced by depletion of ROCK1 and ROCK2. We demonstrate that RhoBTB1 associates with ROCK1 and ROCK2 and its association with ROCK1 is via its Rho domain. The Rho domain binds to the coiled-coil region of ROCK1 close to its kinase domain. We identify two amino acids within the Rho domain that alter RhoBTB1 association with ROCK1. RhoBTB1 is a substrate for ROCK1, and mutation of putative phosphorylation s.
Biochemical Journal 08/20/2019 06:43
Cellular senescence is an endpoint of chemotherapy, and targeted therapies in melanoma and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) can affect tumor growth and microenvironment, influencing treatment outcomes. Metabolic interventions can modulate the SASP, and an enhanced mitochondrial energy metabolism supports resistance to therapy in melanoma cells. Herein we assessed mitochondrial function of therapy-induced senescent melanoma cells obtained after exposing the cells to temozolomide (TMZ), a methylating chemotherapeutic agent. Senescence induction in melanoma was accompanied by a substantial increase in mitochondrial basal, ATP-linked, and maximum respiration rates and in coupling efficiency, spare respiratory capacity, and r.

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