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Mahewu is a fermented cereal beverage produced in Zimbabwe. This study determined the composition and origin of mahewu microbiota. The microbiota of mahewu samples consisted of 3 – 7 dominant strains of lactobacilli and two strains of yeasts. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected. Candida glabrata was present in high cell counts from samples collected in summer but not from samples collected in winter. Millet malt is the only raw ingredient used in the production of mahewu and is a likely source of fermentation microbiota, therefore, malt microbiota was also analyzed by culture dependent and high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies. Millet malt contained 8 – 19 strains of Enterobacteriaceae , lactobacilli, bacilli and very few
Spore-forming bacteria are natural contaminants of food raw materials and sporulation can occur in many environments from farm to fork. In order to characterize and to predict spore formation over time, we developed a model that describes both the kinetics of growth and the differentiation of vegetative cells into spores. The model is based on a classical growth model and enables to describe the kinetic of sporulation with the addition of three parameters specific of the sporulation. Two parameters are related to the probability of each vegetative cell to commit to sporulation and to form a spore, and the last one is related to the time needed to form a spore once the cell is committed to sporulation. The goodness of fit of this growth-spor.
Microcin PDI (MccPDI), a class IIa microcin that is produced by Escherichia coli strains 25 and 284, is known to inhibit foodborne pathogenic enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serotypes O157:H7 and O26. Herein we demonstrate that MccPDI can inhibit Shigella strains and E. coli isolates that are multidrug resistant, the latter including strains known to cause urinary tract infections in people and companion animals. Two exceptions out of 17 strains were identified. One of the two resistant E. coli isolates (AR0349) has a mutation in a critical amino acid residue that was identified in prior work as requisite for the MccPDI precursor protein (McpM) to interact with the outer membrane porin F (OmpF) on susceptible cells. The second resistant E.
The genus Shewanella comprises a group of marine-dwelling species with worldwide distribution. Several species are regarded as causative agents of food spoilage and opportunistic pathogens of human diseases. In this study, a standard multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on six protein-coding genes ( gyrA , gyrB , infB , recN , rpoA and topA ) was established as a rapid and accurate identification tool in fifty-nine type Shewanella strains. This method yielded sufficient resolving power in regard to enough informative sites, adequate sequence divergences and distinct interspecies branches. The stability of phylogenetic topology was supported by high bootstrap values and concordance with different methods. The reliability of the MLSA sch.
Municipal wastewater (MW) includes human waste that contains both commensal and pathogenic enteric microorganisms, and this collective community microbiome can be monitored for community diseases. In a previous study, we assessed salmonellosis disease burden using municipal wastewater from Honolulu, Hawaii, which was monitored over a 54-week period. During this time, a Salmonella serovar Paratyphi B var. L(+) tartrate (+) (also known as S. Java) strain was identified: this strain was detected simultaneously to a clinically-reported outbreak, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were identical between clinical and municipal wastewater isolates. Months after the outbreak subsided, the same pulsotype was detected as the dominan.
Contamination of fresh produce with pathogenic Escherichia coli, including Shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC), represents a serious risk to human health. Colonisation is governed by multiple bacterial and plant factors that can impact the probability and suitability of bacterial growth. Thus, we aimed to determine whether the growth potential of STEC for plants associated with foodborne outbreaks (two leafy vegetables and two sprouted seed species), is predictive for colonisation of living plants as assessed from growth kinetics and biofilm formation in plant extracts. Fitness of STEC was compared to environmental E. coli , at temperatures relevant to plant growth. Growth kinetics in plant extracts varied in a plant-dependent and isolate-depende.
Members of the genus Burkholderia colonize diverse ecological niches. Among the plant-associated strains, Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is an endophyte with a broad host range. In spatially structured environment (unshaken broth cultures), biofilm-constructing specialists of P. phytofirmans PsJN colonizing the air-liquid interface arose at high frequency. In addition to forming a robust biofilm in vitro and in planta on Arabidopsis roots, those mucoid phenotypic variants display a reduced swimming ability and modulate the expression of several Microbe Associated Molecular Pattern (MAMPs) including exopolysaccharides (EPS), flagellin and GroEL. Interestingly, the variants induce a low PR1 and PDF1.2 expression compared to the parental s.
Bacteria in the genus Staphylococcus are important targets for phage therapy due to their prevalence as pathogens and increasing antibiotic resistance. Here we review Staphylococcus outer surface features and specific phage resistance mechanisms that define host range - the set of strains an individual phage can potentially infect. Phage infection goes through five distinct phases - attachment, uptake, biosynthesis, assembly and lysis. Adsorption inhibition, encompassing outer surface teichoic acid receptor alteration, elimination, or occlusion, limits successful phage attachment and entry. Restriction-modification systems (in particular, type I and IV systems), which target phage DNA inside the cell, serve as the major barriers to biosynth.
The cell wall integrity signaling (CWIS) pathway is involved in fungal cell-wall biogenesis. This pathway is composed of sensor proteins, protein kinase C (PKC), and the MAP kinase pathway, and controls the transcription of many cell-wall related genes. PKC plays a pivotal role in this pathway; deficiency in PkcA in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans and in MgPkc1 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea is lethal. This suggests that PKC in filamentous fungi is a potential target for antifungal agents. In the present study, to search for MgPkc1 inhibitors, we carried out in silico screening by three-dimensional structural modeling and performed growth inhibition tests for M. grisea on agar plates. From approximately 800,00.
Crude glycerol is largely generated as the main by-product of the biodiesel industry and is unprofitable for industrial application without costly purification. The direct bioconversion of crude glycerol into 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) by microorganisms is a promising alternative for effective and economic utilization. In this study, Klebsiella pneumoniae 2e was newly isolated for the conversion of crude glycerol into 1,3-PDO. Batch fermentation analysis confirmed that crude glycerol and its main impurities had slight impacts on the growth, key enzyme activity and 1,3-PDO production of K. pneumoniae 2e. The 1,3-PDO yield from crude glycerol by K. pneumoniae 2e reached 0.62 mol 1,3-PDO /mol glycerol , which was higher than that of most report.
The purpose of this study was to create single copy gene expression systems for use in genomic manipulations of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extreme drug resistant (XDR) clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii . In this study, mini-Tn 7 vectors with zeocin and apramycin selection markers were created by cloning ble and aac(3)-IV genes, respectively, enabling either inducible gene expression (pUC18T-mini-Tn 7 T-Zeo-LAC and pUC18T-mini-Tn 7 T-Apr-LAC) or expression from native or constitutive promoters (pUC18T-mini-Tn 7 T-Zeo and pUC18T-mini-Tn 7 T-Apr). The selection markers of these plasmids are contained within an FRT -cassette, which can be used to obtain unmarked mini-Tn 7 insertions upon introduction of a source of Flp recombinase.
Escherichia coli YggS (COG0325) is a member of the highly conserved pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-binding protein family. Recent studies suggested a role for this protein family in the homeostasis of vitamin B 6 and amino acids. The deletion or mutation of a member of this protein family causes pleiotropic effects in many organisms, and is causative of vitamin B 6 -dependent epilepsy in humans. To date, little is known about the mechanism by which lack of YggS results in these diverse phenotypes. In this study, we determined that the pyridoxine (PN) sensitivity observed in the yggS -deficient E. coli was caused by the pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP)-dependent overproduction of Val, which is toxic to E. coli . The data suggest that the yggS mut.
The phototrophic purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris is known for its metabolic versatility and is of interest for various industrial and environmental applications. Despite decades of research on R. palustris growth under diverse conditions, patterns of R. palustris growth and carbon utilization with mixtures of carbon substrates remain largely unknown. R. palustris readily utilizes most short chain organic acids but cannot readily use lactate as a sole carbon source. Here we investigated the influence of mixed-substrate utilization on phototrophic lactate consumption by R. palustris . We found that lactate was simultaneously utilized with a variety of other organic acids and glycerol in time frames that were insufficient.
The adaptation to osmotic stress is crucial for bacterial growth and survival in changing environments. Although a large number of osmotic stress response genes have been identified in various bacterial species, how osmotic changes affect bacterial motility, biofilm formation and colonization of host niches remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that the LrhA regulator is an osmoregulated transcription factor that directly binds to the promoters of the flhDC , eps and opgGH operons and differentially regulates their expression, thus inhibiting motility and promoting exopolysaccharides (EPS) production, synthesis of osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs), biofilm formation and root colonization of the plant growth-promoting bact.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Campylobacter jejuni are notable health hazards associated with the consumption of raw milk. These bacteria may colonize the intestines of asymptomatic cattle and enter bulk tank milk via fecal contamination during milking. We studied the frequency of STEC O157:H7 and C. jejuni contamination in tank milk ( n = 785) and the in-line milk filters of milking machines ( n = 631) versus the frequency of isolation from cattle feces ( n = 257) on three Finnish dairy farms for 1 year. Despite simultaneous isolation of STEC O157:H7 (17%) or C. jejuni (53%) from cattle, these bacteria were rarely isolated from milk filters (2% or <1%, respectively) and milk (0%). As revealed by phylogenomics, one STEC
Multiple species of bacteria oxidize methane in the environment after it is produced by anaerobic ecosystems. These organisms provide reduced carbon substrates for species that cannot oxidize methane themselves, thereby serving a key role in these niches while also sequestering this potent greenhouse gas before it enters the atmosphere. Deciphering the molecular details of how methane-oxidizing bacteria interact in the environment enables us to understand an important aspect that shapes the structures and functions of these communities. Here we show that many members of the Methylomonas genus possess a LuxR-type acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) receptor/transcription factor that is highly homologous to MbaR from the quorum-sensing (QS) sy.
Bacteria of the genus Shigella , consisting of 4 species and >50 serotypes, cause shigellosis, a foodborne disease of significant morbidity, mortality, and economic loss worldwide. Classical Shigella identification based on selective media and serology is tedious, time-consuming, expensive, and not always accurate. A molecular diagnostic assay does not distinguish Shigella at the species level or from enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC). We inspected genomic sequences from 221 Shigella isolates and observed low concordance rates between conventional designation and molecular serotyping: 86.4% and 80.5% at the species and serotype levels, respectively. Serotype determinants for 6 additional serotypes were identified. Examination of differ.
Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes with important roles in the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. Unicellular nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are known to be ubiquitous, contributing to the nitrogen budget in diverse ecosystems. In the unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142, carbon assimilation and carbohydrate storage are crucial processes that occur as part of a robust diurnal cycle of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. During the light period, cells accumulate fixed carbon in glycogen granules to use as stored energy to power nitrogen fixation in the dark. These processes have not been thoroughly investigated, due to the lack of a genetic modification system in this organism. In bacterial glycogen.
Infants fed breast milk harbor a gut microbiota in which bifidobacteria are generally predominant. The metabolic interactions of bifidobacterial species need investigation because they may offer insight into the colonization of the gut in early life. Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 15696 hydrolyzes 2'- O -fucosyl-lactose (2FL; a major fucosylated human milk oligosaccharide) but does not use fucose released into the culture medium. However, fucose is a growth substrate for Bifidobacterium breve 24b, and both strains utilize lactose for growth. The provision of fucose and lactose by B. bifidum (the donor) allowing the growth of B. breve (the beneficiary) conforms to the concept of syntrophy, but both strains will compete for lactose to multiply.
Plankton communities consist of complex microbial consortia that change over time. These fluctuations can be only partially explained by limiting resources. Biotic factors such as herbivores and pathogens also contribute to the control of algal blooms. Here we address the effects of algicidal bacteria on a natural plankton community in an indoor enclosure experiment. The algicidal bacteria, introduced into plankton taken directly from the North Sea during a diatom bloom, caused the rapid decline of the bloom-forming Chaetoceros socialis within only 1 day. The haptophyte Phaeocystis , in contrast, is resistant to the lytic bacteria and could benefit from the removal of the competitor, as indicated by an onset of a bloom in the treated enclos.

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