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Purpose:. CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T therapy has shown impactful results in treatment of B-cell malignancies. However, immune recognition of the murine scFv may render subsequent infusion(s) ineffective. Also, nonselective expansion of both CAR-transduced and nontransduced T cells during the production stage affects the yield and purity of final products. Here, we aim to develop a humanized selective (hs) CD19 CAR to solve the above problems. Experimental Design: A CD19 hsCAR was designed, which incorporated a short selective domain between the humanized heavy chain and light chain. The CAR was examined for its property, and then trialed in 5 highly treated B-ALL patients. Results:. hsCAR possessed around 6-fold higher affinity to.
Purpose:. To investigate the clinical relevance of macrophages in liver metastasis of colorectal cancer and their influence on angiogenesis and patient survival. Moreover to evaluate specific blood monocytes as markers of disease recurrence. Experimental design: In a mouse model with spontaneous liver metastasis, the angiogenic characteristics of tumor- and metastasis (MAM)-associated macrophages were evaluated. Macrophages and the vasculature from 130 primary tumor (pTU) and 123 patients with liver metastasis were assessed. In vivo and in human samples, the clinical relevance of macrophage VEGFR1 expression was analyzed. Blood samples from patients ( n = 157, 80 pTU and 77 liver metastasis) were analyzed for assessing VEGFR1-positive (VEGFR.
Purpose:. The clinical use of MEK inhibitors in uveal melanoma is limited by the rapid acquisition of resistance. This study has used multiomics approaches and drug screens to identify the pan-HDAC inhibitor panobinostat as an effective strategy to limit MEK inhibitor resistance. Experimental Design: Mass spectrometry–based proteomics and RNA-Seq were used to identify the signaling pathways involved in the escape of uveal melanoma cells from MEK inhibitor therapy. Mechanistic studies were performed to evaluate the escape pathways identified, and the efficacy of the MEK-HDAC inhibitor combination was demonstrated in multiple in vivo models of uveal melanoma. Results:. We identified a number of putative escape pathways that were upregulated fol.
Purpose:. The strong association between BAP1 mutations and metastasizing Class 2 uveal melanoma (UM) suggests that epigenetic alterations may play a significant role in tumor progression. Thus, we characterized the impact of BAP1 loss on the DNA methylome in UM. Experimental Design: Global DNA methylation was analyzed in 47 Class 1 and 45 Class 2 primary UMs and in UM cells engineered to inducibly deplete BAP1. RNA-Seq was analyzed in 80 UM samples and engineered UM cells. Results:. Hypermethylation on chromosome 3 correlated with downregulated gene expression at several loci, including 3p21, where BAP1 is located. Gene set analysis of hypermethylated and downregulated genes identified axon guidance and melanogenesis as deregulated pathways,
No immunotherapy strategy is yet offering consistent results against pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. A randomized clinical trial testing repeated immunization with a Listeria monocytogenes –based vaccine encoding for mesothelin in combination with a GM-CSF–transfected allogeneic pancreatic cell vaccine reports no survival benefit for the vaccinated patients. See related article by Le et al., p. 5493.
Purpose:. TP 53 mutations are highly prevalent in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and associated with increased resistance to conventional treatment primarily consisting of chemotherapy and radiation. Restoration of wild-type p53 function in TP 53-mutant cancer cells represents an attractive therapeutic approach and has been explored in recent years. In this study, the efficacy of a putative p53 reactivator called COTI-2 was evaluated in HNSCC cell lines with different TP 53 status. Experimental Design: Clonogenic survival assays and an orthotopic mouse model of oral cancer were used to examine in vitro and in vivo sensitivity of HNSCC cell lines with either wild-type, null, or mutant TP 53 to COTI-2 alone, and in combination w.
Purpose:. Somatic inactivating mutations in ARID1A, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, are detected in various types of human malignancies. Loss of ARID1A compromises DNA damage repair. The induced DNA damage burden may increase reliance on PARP-dependent DNA repair of cancer cells to maintain genome integrity and render susceptibility to PARP inhibitor therapy. Experimental Design: Isogenic ARID1A –/– and wild-type cell lines were used for assessing DNA damage response, DNA compactness, and profiling global serine/threonine phosphoproteomic in vivo . A panel of inhibitors targeting DNA repair pathways was screened for a synergistic antitumor effect with irradiation in ARID1A –/– tumors. Results:. ARID1A-deficient endome.
Purpose:. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis. Patients with MPM who do not respond to standard first-line chemotherapy have limited treatment options. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, for the treatment of advanced or metastatic MPM. Patients and Methods:. Japanese patients with unresectable, advanced, or metastatic MPM resistant or intolerant to ≤2 regimens of chemotherapy and ≥1 measurable lesion(s) were enrolled. Patients received nivolumab 240 mg intravenously every 2 weeks until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was objective response rate by central assessment according to the Modified Response Eval.
Purpose:. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with deletion of chromosome 7q/7 [-7/(del)7q MDS] is associated with worse outcomes and needs novel insights into pathogenesis. Reduced expression of signaling protein dedicator of cytokinesis 4 (DOCK4) in patients with -7/(del)7q MDS leads to a block in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) differentiation. Identification of targetable signaling networks downstream of DOCK4 will provide means to restore hematopoietic differentiation in MDS. Experimental Design: We utilized phosphoproteomics approaches to identify signaling proteins perturbed as a result of reduced expression of DOCK4 in human HSCs and tested their functional significance in primary model systems. Results:. We demonstrate that reduced levels
Purpose:. DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PK) is a pleiotropic kinase involved in DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. DNA-PK is deregulated in selected cancer types and is strongly associated with poor outcome. The underlying mechanisms by which DNA-PK promotes aggressive tumor phenotypes are not well understood. Here, unbiased molecular investigation in clinically relevant tumor models reveals novel functions of DNA-PK in cancer. Experimental Design: DNA-PK function was modulated using both genetic and pharmacologic methods in a series of in vitro models, in vivo xenografts, and patient-derived explants (PDE), and the impact on the downstream signaling and cellular cancer phenotypes was discerned. Data obtained we.
Purpose:. APOBEC3-UNG imbalance contributes to hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibition and somatic mutations. We aimed to explore the associations between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk and genetic polymorphisms predisposing the imbalance. Experimental Design: Genetic polymorphisms at APOBEC3 promoter and UNG enhancer regions were genotyped in 5,621 participants using quantitative PCR. HBV mutations (nt.1600–nt.1945, nt.2848–nt.155) were determined by Sanger sequencing. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was applied to detect the transcriptional activity. Effects of APOBEC3B / UNG SNPs and expression levels on HCC prognosis were evaluated with a cohort of 400 patients with HCC and public databases, respectively. Results:. APOBEC3B rs2267401-G all.
Purpose:. Protein expression in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is routinely measured by IHC or quantitative fluorescence (QIF) on a handful of markers on a single section. Digital spatial profiling (DSP) allows spatially informed simultaneous assessment of multiple biomarkers. Here we demonstrate the DSP technology using a 44-plex antibody cocktail to find protein expression that could potentially be used to predict response to immune therapy in melanoma. Experimental Design: The NanoString GeoMx DSP technology is compared with automated QIF (AQUA) for immune marker compartment-specific measurement and prognostic value in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Then we use this tool to search for novel predictive markers in a cohort of.
Both immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and antiangiogenesis agents have changed the landscape of cancer treatment in the modern era. While antiangiogenesis agents have demonstrated activities in tumors with high vascularization, including renal cell carcinoma and colorectal cancer, the effect of ICIs has been seen mainly in immunologically recognized tumors, with highly immune-infiltrative lymphocytes. The main challenge in the drug development of ICIs is moving their activities to noninflamed tumors and overcoming resistance that is driven, in part, by the immune-suppressive microenvironment. Angiogenesis factors drive immune suppression by directly suppressing the antigen-presenting cells as well as immune effector cells or through augme.
Purpose:. Limited options exist for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer progressing after 1 or more lines of therapy. A phase II study in patients with previously treated metastatic pancreatic cancer showed that combining GVAX pancreas (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting allogeneic pancreatic tumor cells) with cyclophosphamide (Cy) and CRS-207 (live, attenuated Listeria monocytogenes expressing mesothelin) resulted in median overall survival (OS) of 6.1 months, which compares favorably with historical OS achieved with chemotherapy. In the current study, we compared Cy/GVAX + CRS-207, CRS-207 alone, and standard chemotherapy in a three-arm, randomized, controlled phase IIb trial. Patients and Methods:. Patients wit.
Since the first approval of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg; Pfizer; CD33 targeted), two additional antibody–drug conjugates (ADC), brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris; Seattle Genetics, Inc.; CD30 targeted) and inotuzumab ozogamicin (Besponsa; Pfizer; CD22 targeted), have been approved for hematologic cancers and 1 ADC, trastuzumab emtansine (Kadcyla; Genentech; HER2 targeted), has been approved to treat breast cancer.
The MERIT study was a single-arm, phase II clinical trial of nivolumab for the second- or third-line treatment of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in Japan. MERIT confirmed that PD-1 inhibition has activity in mesothelioma and led to the regulatory approval of nivolumab for the treatment of mesothelioma in Japan. See related article by Okada et al., p. 5485.
Purpose:. Molecular properties associated with complete response or acquired resistance to concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CRT) are incompletely characterized. Experimental Design: We performed integrated whole-exome/transcriptome sequencing and immune infiltrate analysis on rectal adenocarcinoma tumors prior to neoadjuvant CRT (pre-CRT) and at time of resection (post-CRT) in 17 patients [8 complete/partial responders, 9 nonresponders (NR)]. Results:. CRT was not associated with increased tumor mutational burden or neoantigen load and did not alter the distribution of established somatic tumor mutations in rectal cancer.

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